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Table 1 Medicinal plants use for respiratory disorders

From: Traditional medicinal plants used for respiratory disorders in Pakistan: a review of the ethno-medicinal and pharmacological evidence

Scientific name Family Part used Traditional use
Abelmoschus esculentus Solanaceae Fruit Throat, cough and bronchitis infections [43]
Abies pindrow Royle Amaranthaceae Fresh leaves Cough, asthma and other chest infection [44]
Abrus precatorius Fabaceae Root and leaves Asthma, cough [45]
Acacia arabica Apiaceae Leaves and fruits Cough [46]
Acacia jacquemontii Myrsinaceae Flower, seeds, leaves, stem, bark Asthma [47]
Acacia modesta Wall Acanthaceae Gum Respiratory tract problems [47]
Acacia nilotica Apocynaceae Flowers Asthma [48]
Achillea millefolium Asteraceae Leaves Cold, flu [49]
Achyranthes aspera Linn. Amaranthaceae Leaves Pneumonia and asthma [50]
Aconitum chasmanthum Ranunculaceae Root Cough, and asthma [51]
Aconitum hetrophyllum Ranunculaceae Root Cough, asthma [51]
Aconitum violaceum Ranunculaceae Root Asthma, cough [51]
Adhatoda vasica nees Capparidaceae Whole plant Cough, bronchitis, asthma [52]
Adhatoda zelyanica Medic Apocynaceae Whole plant Cough, asthma [53]
Adiantum capillus veneris Liliaceae Whole plant Coughs, bronchitis [54]
Adiantum incisum Forssk Liliaceae Fronds Cough and cold [55]
Adiantum venustum Liliaceae Rhizome and whole plant Cough [40]
Aesculus indica Liliaceae Fruits Cough [40]
Ageratum conyzoides L. Asteraceae Leaves Cold and coughs [51]
Albizia lebbeck Moraceae Bark Flu, cough, lung problems [49]
Alhagi maurorum Medic Fabaceae Whole plant Respiratory diseases [54]
Allium cepa Apiaceae Stem, leaves Cough [56]
Allium humile Kunth Alliaceae Bulb infusion Asthma/breathing, problem, cough, cold [40]
Allium sativum L. Euphorbiaceae Bulb Respiratory tract infection [40]
Aloe barbadensis Liliaceae Whole plant Cough, asthma [52]
Aloe vera Solanaceae Arieal parts Cough Suppressant [55]
Alstonia scholaris Fabaceae Bark, Leaves Asthma [57]
Althaea officinalis L. Lythraceae Flowers, leaves, roots, fruits and seeds Asthma and bronchitis [56]
Amaranthus viridis L. Caeselpiniaceae Leaves, stem Cough [58]
Amaranthus albus Amaranthacea Flower, stem, leaves, seeds Asthma [56]
Amaranthus caudatus Asteraceae Shoots Cough and asthma [59]
Amaranthus spinosus L. Astraceae Whole plant Bronchitis [56]
Ammi visnaga [L.] Lam Amaranthaceae Fruit and flower Bronchial asthma/breathing problems, whooping coug [56]
Anagalis arvensis Poaceae Fruit, seeds, leaves, stem, flower Flu [60]
Anaphalis nepalensis Asteraceae Flower and leaves Asthma, cough [61]
Andrachne aspera Leguminosae Herb Cough, bronchitis [62]
Anethum graveolens L. Solanaceae Seeds Bronchitis [63]
Angelica glauaca Edgew Asteraceae Ariel parts Asthma, cold [64]
Angelica glauca Umbelliferae/apiaceae Roots Cough [64]
Apium Graveolens L. Pinaceae Seed and root Bronchitis, asthma [65]
Aremisia scoparia Asteraceae Whole plant Fever cough [66]
Arisaema flavum Forssk. Berberidaceae Rhizome, fruit Cough, cold [66]
Arisaema jacquemonti Asclepiadaceae Stem, flower Asthma [67]
Aristida adcensionis L. Poaceae Stem, leaves Cold [68]
Arnebia benthamii Boraginaceae Stem and leaves Asthma, cough [69]
Artemisia maritima L. Asteraceae Aerial parts Cough [70]
Artemisia fragrans Willd. Boraginaceae Leaves Asthma [71]
Artemisia macrocephala Euphorbiaceae   Cold, cough, flu, asthma [70]
Artemisia scoparia Asteraceae Whole plant Cough chest problems [70]
Artemisia vulgaris Asclepiadaceae Leaves Asthma [71]
Asphodelus tenuifolius Apocynaceae Stem, leaves, seeds Cold [67]
Astragalus psilocentros Leguminosae Roots and thorny branches Flue [42]
Astragulus tragacantha Asteraceae Leaves Respiratory infection [72]
Atropa acuminate Royle Ranunculaceae Leaves, flower Cold, flu [73]
Avena sativa Poaceae Fruit, seeds, leaves, stem Asthma [74]
Ayapana triplinervis Caryophyllaceae Leaves Cough [75]
Azadirachta indica Solanaceae Leaves Cough [70]
Bambusa bambos [L.] Solanaceae Leaves herb Expectorant [76]
Barleria cristata L. Lamiaceae Whole plant Cold and flu [77]
Bauhinia variegata Mimosaceae Bark, root, buds Asthma [78]
Berberis balochistanica Berberidaceae Wholeplant Cough [79]
Berberis lyceum Adiantaceae Root, bark Cough [78]
Bergenia stracheyi Saxifragaceae Leaves and root Cough, asthma, lungh cancer, respiratory problem [80]
Bergenia ciliate Apiaceae Root, flowers and leaves Coughs and colds, asthma [81]
Bistorta amplexicaulis Polygonaceae Leaves Flu [70]
Bistorta vivipara Polygonaceae Root and stem Chronic bronchitis [68]
Boerhavia procumbens Rutaceae Roots Cough, asthma [70]
Boerhavia procumbens Nyctaginaceae Roots Flue [70]
Brassica campestris Chenopodiaceae Flower, fruit, seeds, leaves, stem, pod Cold [82]
Broussonetia papyrifer Moraceae Fruit Cough [70]
Bambusa arundinacea Solanaceae Leaves Cold, flu [83]
Bunium persicum Apiaceae Seeds Cold, cough [84]
Cadaba farinose Umbelliferae Roots, leaves Cold and cough [85]
Calotropis gigantean Convolvulaceae All parts Cough and asthma [86]
Calotropis procera Asclepiadaceae Roots, flowers, latex Cough [70]
Cannabis sativa Cannabiaceae Whole plant Cough [70]
Capparis aphylla Roth Euphorbiaceae Bark Cough and asthma [87]
Capparis decidua Solanaceae All parts Asthma, cough [70]
Capparis spinosa L. Capparidaceae Flower and seeds Asthma, cough [88]
Capsella bursapastoris L. Brassicaceae Seeds Cough, respiratory diseases [88]
Capsicum annum L. Asteraceae Fruit Bronchitis [70]
Caragana brevifolia Papillionacea Roots Cough [80]
Cardia myxa Chenopodiaceae Flower, leaves, seed, bark Respiratory tract infection [89]
Carissa opaca Stapf Myrtaceae Leaves, root and fruit Cold and flu [70]
Carthamus tinctorius L. Asteraceae Flower Cough, respiratory problems [70]
Carum bulbocastanum Koch. Apiaceae Seeds Fiue [90]
Carum capticum L. Violaceae Seeds, leaves and flowers Cough bronchitis and diarrhea [91]
Carum carvi L. Asteraceae Stem and leaves Bronchitis, cough [92]
Carum copticum Benth Solanaceae Whole plant Whooping cough [22]
Cassia Occidentalis Mimosaceae Leaves Cough [22]
Cassia fistula L. Moraceae Fruit Cough and flue [93]
Catharanthus roseus Mimosaceae Whole plant Cold, flue, bronchitis [70]
Celtis australis L. Ulmaceae Leaves Cough [94]
Chenopodium album Fabaceae Flower, fruit, seeds, leaves, stem Cold [74]
Chenopodium botrys L. Chenopodiaceae Stem and leaves Asthma [67]
Chenopodium morale Fabaceae Flower, fruit, seeds, leaves, stem Flu [62]
Cicer arietinum L. Moraceae Fruit Flu, cough [62]
Cichorium intybus L. Asteraceae Whole plants Asthma and breathing problems [70]
Cichorium endivia Linn. Asteraceae Seeds Cough [94]
Cistanche tubulosa Poaceae Whole plant Cough [95]
Citrullus colocynthis Cucurbitaceae Leaves, fruits Bronchial asthma [93]
Citrus medica Solanaceae Leaves, seeds and latex Cough, cold, asthma [70]
Colchicum luteum Colchicaceae Coms Bronchial diseases [86]
Convolvulus arvensis Linn. Astraceae Whole plant Cough, flu [67]
Conyza bonariensis Brassicaceae Whole plants, oil Bronchial complaints [96]
Conyza canadenisis Chenopodiaceae Whole plant Bronchial catarrh [52]
Cordia dichotoma Moraceae Whole plant and fruit Dry cough [97]
Cordia gharaf Ehrenb. Oleaceae Tree fruit Dry cough [98]
Cordia obliqua Willd. Anacaediaceae Fruits Throat infection, common cold [93]
Cordial dichotoma Boraginaceae Leaves Asthma [99]
Coriandrum sativum Brassicaceae Flower, fruit, seeds, leaves, stem Respiratory tract infection [70]
Coronopus didymus Brassicaceae Leaves and tender parts Asthma, bronchitis [67]
Corydalis ramose Fumariaceae Leaves Cough [100]
Cousinia stocksii C. Winkler Asteraceae Gum and roots Asthma [101]
Cucurbita maxima Polygonaceae Seeds Cough [38]
Cupressus sempervirens Asteraceae Fruit and seed Flu and cold [70]
Cuscuta reflexa Fabaceae Whole plant Cough [70]
Cydonia oblonga Mill Violaceae Fruit Cough [102]
Cymbopogon jawaracusa Salvadoracea Whole plant Respiratory diseases [103]
Cymbopogon jwarancusa Poaceae Leaves, flowers and roots Flu, and cough [82]
Cynodon dactylon Ranunculaceae Leaves Asthma [94]
Cynoglossum lanceolatum Solanaceae Whole plant Bronchitis, Cough [67]
Datura stramonium Solanaceae Seeds, flowers, leaf, fruit Whooping cough [93]
Datura alba Zygophyllaceae Leaves and seeds Asthma [103]
Datura fastuosa L. Solanaceae Whole plant Asthma [70]
Datura innoxia Mill Euphorbiaceae Dried leaves, seeds and fruit Asthma [70]
Datura metel Linn. Solanaceae Whole plant Asthma [70]
Daucus carota Moraceae Stem, root, carrot Asthma, bronchitis [99]
Delphinium brunonianum Royle Ranunculaceae Leaves, flower Cough, asthma [88]
Dendrocalamus strictus Scrophulariaceae Leaves Cough and cold [82]
Desmodium gangeticum Caesalpiniaceae Roots Asthma and cough [45]
Desmostachya bipinnata Nyctaginaceae Leaves, root Asthma [70]
Diospyros lotus L. Punicaceae Flower Cough [104] ]
Dipterygium glaucum Euphobiaceae Areal part Asthma [93]
Dodonaea viscosa Spaindaceae Leaves, flowers and seeds Chest infection [74]
Duchesnea indica Rosaceae Aerial parts, fruits Cough [80]
Echinops echinatus Capparidaceae Roots Cough [78]
Eclipta prostata Linn. Boraginaceae Whole plant Flu [70]
Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Elaeagnaceae Fruits Respiratory problems [70]
Elaeagnus parvifolia Fabaceae Shrub Cough [105]
Emblica officinale Gaerth Euphorbiaceae Tree Cold, cough [44]
Ephedra gerardiana Ephedraceae Stem Respiratory disorders, asthma/breathing problem [84]
Ephedra intermedia Ephedraceae Whole plant Asthma and tuberculosis [70]
Ephedra procera    Cough and asthma [70]
Ephedra ciliata Ephedraceae Wholeplant Chest problems, cough, asthma [84]
Eucalyptus citirodora Solanaceae Leaves Cold, flue, and cough [93]
Eucalyptus globulus Labill Moraceae Tree Flue [70]
Eugenia jambolana Solanaceae Bark Bronchitis, asthma [87]
Euphorbia helioscopia Linn. Fabaceae Whole plant Asthma, bronchitis, cough [60]
Euphorbia tircucalli Mimosaceae Juice Cough, asthma [60]
Euphorbia hirta Labiatae Whole plant Asthma, chronic bronchial [93]
Euphorbia prostate Fabaceae Whole plan Asthma [87]
Euphorbia thymifolia Salvadoraceae Whole plant Bronchial affection, cough and asthma [70]
Evolvulus alsinoides Euphorbiaceae Whole plant Bronchitis [87]
Fagonia bruguieri DC Zygophyllaceae Whole plant Asthma [106]
Fagonia cretica L. Solanaceae Whole plant Antiasthematic, cough [94]
Fagonia indica Burm. F Amaranthaceae Whole plant Asthma [70]
Ferula assa-foetida Apiaceae Root, stem and gum resin Cough, asthma [70]
Ferula narthex Boiss. Malvaceae Whole plant Cough and asthma [70]
Ferula oopoda [Boiss. and Buhse] Apiaceae Seeds, leaves and sap Cough [107]
Ficus benghalensis Moraceae Milk of leaves, bark, root Asthma [70]
Ficus religiosa L. Papilionaceae Fruit, leaves Asthma [78]
Ficus carica L. Moraceae Fruit and leaves Cough [93]
Ficus elastic Moraceae Bark, fruits and leaves Cough, asthma [93]
Ficus lyrata Molluginaceae Whole plant Asthma, cough [70]
Ficus palmate Moraceae Fruit, latex Asthma, cough [70]
Foenicullum vulgare Miller Papilionaceae Seed and leaves Cough, pneumonia [108]
Foeniculum capillacerm Asteraceae Seed, root, leaves Cough, and asthma [45]
Fragaria nubicola Rosaceae Root and fruit Asthma [81]
Fritillaria roylei Hook. Asteraceae Herb Broncho-asthma [103]
Fumaria indica Fumariaceae Whole plant Cough [109]
Gentiana kurrooroyle Gentianaceae Flower Cough [110]
Gentianodes olivieri Gentianaceae Whole plant Cough, chest problems [81]
Gentianodes tianschanica Gentianaceae Leaves Cough [81]
Glossonema varians   Fruit Cough [111]
Glycyrrhiza glabra Adiantaceae Roots Cough [70]
Grewia optiva Ranunculacea Leaves Cough [59]
Hackelia uncinatum Ranunculaceae Flowers Coughs [103]
Helianthus annuus Papilionaceae Flower, root, seed, leaves Asthma, bronchial [81]
Helianthus tuberosus Acanthaceae Tubers Cough and bronchitis and flu, respiratory diseases [83]
Heliotropium europaeum Malvaceae Whole plant Cough [86]
Heracleum candicans Apiaceae Root Asthma, cough [112]
Hippophae rhamnoides Elaeagnaceae Fruit juice Cough [70]
Hyoscyamus niger Linn. Zygophyllaceae Whole plant Asthma, whooping cough [70]
Hyoscyamus insanus Stocks Caesalpiniaceae Whole plant Anti asthmatic [45]
Inula grantioides Asteraceae Whole plant Asthma [107]
Inula racemosa Hook Violaceae Root Asthma and bronchitis [100]
Ipomea carnea Malvaceae Leaves, stem Asthma [113]
Iris hookeriana Iriddaceae Flower Asthma, cough and bronchitis [68]
Jatropha curcas L. Malvaceae   Bronchitis [94]
Juglans regia Euphorbiaceae Fruits Asthma [70]
Juniperus excelsa M. B. Cupressaceae Seeds and leaves Chest infection [84]
Justicia adhatoda L. Alliaceae Cold Cough, cold, flu [70]
Lactuca serriola L. Asteraceae Whole plant Whooping cough and asthma [70]
Laepus nigricollis Bouidugs   Bronchial diseases [62]
Lantana camara Amaranthaceae Leaves, root and flowers Respiratory diseases [48]
Lasiurus scindicus Poaceae Stem, leaves Cough [74]
Lathyrus aphaca L. Moraceae Shoot Hiccough [95]
Launea procumbus Euphorbiaceae Whole plant Cold, flu, cough [57]
Lawsomia alba Lam Meliaceae Leaves Bronchitis [114]
Lawsonia inermis alba Punicaceae Powdered leaves, seeds, bark and flowers Cough, bronchitis [57]
Lemna minor Convolvulaceae Whole plant Cough [115]
Lepidium sativum L. Fabaceae Shoot Cough and cold [95]
Leptadenia pyrotechnica Brassicaceae Root, bark and leaves Asthma [76]
Limeum indicum Nyctaginaceae Leaf and stem Cold [95]
Linum usitatissimum Papaveraceae Seed, bark, leaves, flower and Oil Cough, asthma [52]
Lonicera periclymenum L. Caprifoliaceae Leaves and flower Cough [116]
Lychnis coronaria Lamak Anacaediaceae Roots and flowers Lung troubles [117]
Malva neglecta Solanaceae Leaves and stem Bronchitis, cough [8]
Malva parviflora Cruciferae Whole plant Cough [118]
Malva sylvestris Myrtaceae Whole plant Chronic bronchitis [84]
Malvastrum coromendelianum Oxalidaceae Flowers Coughs [109]
Mangifera indica Capparaceae Flowers, leaves, kernel, bark, fruits Asthma, cough [93]
Marrubium vulgare L. Umbelliferae Leaves Cough [51]
Medicago denticulate Poaceae Seeds Respiratory diseases [119]
Melia azodirachta L. Salvadoraceae Root Lung complaints [120]
Melilotus indica L. Verbenaceae Annual herb Bronchial disorder [109]
Melilotus parviflora Lamiaceae Whole plant, seeds Cold [53]
Mentha longifolia Labiateae Leaves Cough [52]
Mentha royleana Benth. Lamiaceae Leaves Cough and cold [57]
Micromeria biflora Fabaceae   Colds and coughs [121]
Mimosa pudica L. Lamiaceae Roots and leaves Asthma [122]
Mollugo cerviana Oxalidaceae Fruit, stem, leaves Asthma [75]
Momordica balsamica L. Moraceae Fruits Asthma [103]
Momordica charantia L. Poaceae Fruit Treat cough, bronchitis [123]
Morus alba L. Solanaceae Flower, leaves, root, bulb Cough [120]
Morus nigra L. Poaceae Leaves, roots, fruits Cough [46]
Mukia moderaspatana Fabaceae Flower, seeds, stem, leaves Cough [118]
Murraya koenigii Rosaceae Leaves Asthma [122]
Musa paradisica L. Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae Leaves, flower Whooping cough [103]
Nasturtium officinale R.Br. Rosaceae Leaves Chest troubles [124]
Nepeta praetervisa Rech. F. Lamiaceae Leaves Cold, chest problems [84]
Nigella sativa Ranunculacea Seeds Whooping cough [43]
Nonea edgeworthii Cucurbitaceae Leaves Cough [103]
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. Asclepidiaceae Shrub flowers Cough [73]
Ocimum basilicum Solanaceae Leaves and seeds Bronchitis, cough, cold [52]
Oenothera rosea L. Lamiaceae   Whooping cough [70]
Olea ferruginea   Leaves Cough, cold, flue [103]
Onosma hispida Boraginaceae Leaves, flower Cough, respiratory diseases [81]
Onosma bracteatum Wall Moraceae Whole plant Asthma and bronchitis [125]
Opuntia dillenii Lythraceae Fruits Asthma, whooping cough [83]
Opuntia monacantha Haw Caesalpinaceae Whole plant Bronchitis and asthma [126]
Origanum vulgare Violaceae Perennial herb Respiratory problems, colds, flu, asthma [53]
Oryza sativa Salicaceae Fruit, leaves, stem Cold [103]
Oxalis corniculata L. Ranunculaceae Leaves Respiratory disorders like bronchitis, asthma [103]
Oxystelma esculentum Asclepiadaceae Fruits Expectorant, cough [93]
Panicum antidotale Retz Polygonaceae Stem, leaves Cough [103]
Papaver hybridum Solanaceae Petals Flu and cough [86]
Papaver nudicaule L. Papaveraceae Herb Cough [120]
Papaver somniferum L. Papaveraceae Seed, fruit Cough [107]
Peganum harmala Solanaceae Seeds, leaves Asthma [52]
Pennisetum typhoides Burm. Poaceae Seeds Flu and cough [78]
Periploca aphylla Rhamnaceae Whole plant Nasal decongestant [54]
Phalaris minor Retz Solanaceae Leaves, stem Cold, cough [103]
Phoenix dactylifera Capparaceae Fruit, gum and seeds Colds, bronchial catarrh [109]
Phyla nodiflora Verbenaceae Whole plant Cold [93]
Phyllanthus emblica Liliaceae Fresh, fruits, seeds, flowers, leaves, bark Asthma, bronchitis [70]
Picrorhiza kurroa Scrophulariaceae Root Asthma [68]
Pimpinella diversifolia Asteraceae Fruit Cough, cold [103]
Pinus roxburghii Solanaceae Areal part Coughs, cold [44]
Pistacia atlantica Anacardiaceae Gum Cough, Chestproblems [70]
Pistacia integerrima Rosaceae Leaf galls Cough, asthma [70]
Pistacia khinjuk Anacardiaceae Fruits Cough [84]
Plantago lanceolata L. Plantaginaceae Leaves and seeds Cough and chest diseases [70]
Plantago major L. Punicaceae Leaves, stem Asthma, cough [70]
Plantago ovata Forssk Brassicaceae Seeds and husk Cough and cold [101]
Plantago lanceolata Plantaginaceae Fresh or dried leaves Relieving coughs [70]
Polygonum affine Polygonaceae Root Lung disorder [110]
Polygonum hydropiper L. Polygonaceae Aerial parts Respiratory [90]
Populus tremula Xanthorhoeaceae Leaves, bark Cough [74]
Portulaca oleracea Asteraceae Aerial part of plant Asthma [86]
Portulaca quadrifida Tamaricaceae Leaves Cold, flu, Respiratory problems [70]
Potentilla bifurca L. Rosaceae Aerial part Cough [57]
Potentilla salesoviana Rosaceae Flower Cough, cold [57]
Primula veris L. Primulaceae Flower Bronchitis [127]
Prosopis cineraria Moraceae Fruit, pods Asthma [70]
Prosopis juliflora Asclepidaceae Xerophytic shrub Asthma, cough [70]
Prosopis spicigera Cactaceae Bark, leaves, flowers Asthma [109]
Prunella vulgaris L. Asteraceae   Difficult breathing [70]
Prunus cornuta L. Elaeagnaceae Fruit Asthma [92]
Psammogeton biternatum    Cough [101]
Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum Asteraceae Leaves Asthma/breathing problem [110]
Psidium guajava Malvaceae Fruit Old cough, bronchitis and chronic whooping cough [70]
Punica granatum Punicaceae Roots, fruit, rinds Cough [70]
Pyrus communis L. Rosaceae Fruits Cough [89]
Quercus incana Bartram Podophyllaceae Bark and fruits Asthma/breathing problems [89]
Quercus leucotrichophora Plantaginaceae Banafsha Asthma, cough [128]
Quercus floribunda Rhamnaceae Seeds Asthma [70]
Ranunculus arvensis L. Acanthaceae Whole plant Asthma [22]
Ranunculus muricatus L. Solanaceae   Asthma [103]
Raphanus sativus L. Brassicaceae Whole plant Asthma [81]
Rheum australe D. Don Polygonaceae Roots, rhizomes, stem, leaves Cough [70]
Rhazya stricta Asclepiadaceae Whole plant Asthma [70, 129]
Rheum emodi Rosaceae Floral scape Cough and flu [38]
Rheum spiciforma Royle Polygonaceae Roots Chronic bronchitis, asthama [70]
Rhodiola imbricate Edgew Crassulaceae Root Cough [110]
Rhus coriaria L. Apocynaceae Leaves, flower, root Cough, asthma [130]
Rhynchosia minima Mimosaceae Leaves Asthma [93]
Ricinus communis Leporidae Leaves Asthma and cough [49]
Rosa damascene Amaranthaceae   Bronchitis, cough [76]
Rosa indica L. Solanaceae Flowers Asthma [131]
Rosa webbiana Umbelliferae Fruits Asthma [51]
Rubus fruiticosus Hook. Violaceae   Whooping cough [128]
Rubus ulmifolius Rosaceae Leaves Cough [59]
Rumex crispus L. Solanaceae   Cough [103]
Rumex dentatus L. Tamaricaceae Fruit, stem, leaves Cold [70]
Rumex hastatus D. Don Fagaceae Whole plant Asthma, cough [130]
Rumex nepalensis Spreng Polygonaceae Leaves, roots Lungs diseases [103]
Saccharum bengalense Violaceae Stem Cough [56]
Salsola baryosma Amarylliadaceae Stem, leaves Cough [74]
Salvadora oleoidesdecne Apiaceae Stem, root, oil, seed, leaves, bark Cough [46]
Salvadora persica L. Salvadoraceae Seeds, roots Cough [107]
Salvia nubicola Labiateae Leaves Cough, asthma and other respiratory issues [81]
Salvia moorcroftiana Malvaceae Root Cough [52]
Salvia officinalis Linn. Liliaceae Cough and asthma Cough, cold [132]
Saussurea atkinsonii Asteraceae Aerial parts Respiratory diseases like asthma, cough [133]
Saussurea ceratocarpa Asteraceae Whole plant Asthma, bronchitis [68]
Scorzonera tortuosissima Asteraceae Roots, gum, flower, leaves Cough and chest problems [107]
Sema alexandriana Miller Asclepiadaceae Dried leaves and pods Asthma [52]
Silybum marianum Sapindaceae Leaves Flu [35]
Sisymbrium irio L. Brassicaceae Leaves Cough [52]
Skimmia laureola Solanaceae Leaves Asthma [128]
Solanum melongena Adiantaceae Fruit, leaf, root Asthma, bronchitis [56]
Solanum surratense Solanaceae Berries, root, fruit Cough, asthma [134]
Solanum tuberosum Solanaceae Leaf, flower and tuber Cough [134]
Solanum nigrum L. Solanaceae Leaf, berries, flowers, root Cough, bronchitis [70]
Solanum incanum L. Acanthaceae Leaves, seeds Bronchitis [52]
Sonchus asper Leguminosae Whole plant Cough, asthma [70]
Spinacia oleraceal Amarylliadaceae Leaves Cough [103]
Sporobolus ioclados Solanaceae Stem, leaves Cough [103]
Stacia integerrima Scrophulariaceae Bark and fruit Bronchial disorder [103]
Stellaria media Caryophylaceae Herb Cough [103]
Suaeda fruiticosa Fabaceae Flower, fruit, stem, leaves Cough [103]
Sussurea lappa Compositae Root Cough with cold [94]
Swertia cordata Gentianaceae Flower Cough [110]
Swertia petiolata Violaceae   Asthma, bronchitis [70]
Tamarix aphylla Amaranthaceae Whole plant Cough [135]
Tamarix dioica Acanthaceae Bark Cough [136]
Tamarix gallica Zygophyllacaea Flower, fruit, stem, leaves Asthma [58]
Tanacetum senecionis Asteraceae Floral parts Asthma [57]
Taverniera persica Myrsinaceae Fruit, seeds, leaves, stem Cough [74]
Taxus baccata Linn. Moraceae Bark Asthma and bronchitis [100]
Taxus wallichiana Zuce Scrophulariaceae Leaves and fruits Pneumonia, bronchitis, whooping cough, asthma [128]
Tephrosia lupinifolia Myrtaceae Roots, leaf, stem bark Asthma [70]
Thymus linearis Labiateae Arial parts Cough, asthma [128]
Thymus serpyllum L. Lamiaceae Dried leaves Whooping cough, asth ma and respiratory inflammation [70]
Trachyspermum ammi Malvaceae Seeds and oil Bronchitis, asthma and colds, cough [52]
Trianthema portulacastrum L. Amaranthaceae Roots Asthma [70]
Trianthema triquetra Chenopodiaceae Flower, fruit, leaves, stem Asthma [74]
Tribulus longipetalus L. Amaranthaceae Stem, leaves, fruit, seeds Flu [51]
Tribulus terrestris L. Amaranthacea Root and fruit Cough, asthma [70]
Trichodesma africanum Boraginaceae Leaves and fruits Cough and chest problems [107]
Trichodesma indicum Boraginaceae Leaves and flowers Flue and cough [70]
Trifolium resupinatum Malvaceae Whole plant Whooping cough [70]
Trifolium alexandrium Poaceae Stem, leaves Respiratory tract [74]
Trifolium pratense L. Fabaceae Dried flowers Whooping cough, bronchitis and asthma [70]
Trifolium repens Lamiaceae Perennial herb Coughs, colds [70]
Trigonella foenumgraecum Acanthaceae   Cough [70]
Tussilago farfara L. Asteraceae Leaves Cough, respiratory problems [70]
Tylophora hirsuta L. Poaceae Root, leaves Asthma and whooping cough [70]
Verbascum thapsus L. Scrophulariaceae Flowers and leaves Cough [128]
Vernonia anthelmentica Asteraceae Seeds Cough, chest infection, Pneumonia [76]
Vicia sativa Primulaceae Whole plant Respiratory diseases [70]
Viola serpens Violaceae Whole plant Cold, cough and flu [70]
Viola betonicifolia Sm Asclepiadaceae Whole herb and flowers Lung troubles, cough and colds, bronchitis [70]
Viola biflora L. Pteridaceae Flower Cold and flu [22]
Viola canescens Wall. ex Violaceae Floral part Cough [70]
Viola fedtschenkoana Violaceae Whole plant Cough [22]
Viola odorata L. Berberidaceae Whole Plant Flu and cold [22]
Viola stacksii Acanthaceae Whole plant Cold, cough [70]
Viola sylvatica Fries Acanthaceae Dried plant Cough, and cold [70]
Vitex negundo Verbenaceae Leaves Flu [50]
Vitis vinifera L. Rhamnaceae Flowers Bronchitis [133]
Wattakaka volubilis Phasianidae Leaves Cough, cold and other respiratory problems [70]
Withania coagulans Meliaceae Fruit Cough, asthma [74]
Withania somnifera Zingerberaceae Fruit, seeds, leaves, stem, flower Flu [52]
Zataria multiflora Boiss. Lamiaceae Stem and leaves Cough and chest problems [101]
Zea mays L. Poaceae   Cough problems [44]
Zaleya pentandra Aizoaceae Root Cough, phlegmatic cough and flue [70]
Zingiber officinalis Asclepiadaceae Stem, leaves Flu [70]
Ziziphus jujube Mill. Liliaceae Fruits Bronchitis [93]
Zizyphus nummularia Solanaceae Fruit Bronchitis [40]
Zizyphus sativa G Rhamnaceae Fruit and leaves Bronchitis [104]