- Open Access
Traditional medicinal plants used for respiratory disorders in Pakistan: a review of the ethno-medicinal and pharmacological evidence
Chinese Medicinevolume 13, Article number: 48 (2018)
Respiratory disorders are a common cause of malady and demise in Pakistan due to its remoteness, cold and harsh climatic conditions as well as scarce health care facilities. The people rely upon the indigenous plant resources to cure various respiratory disorders. The primary objective of this review was to assemble all available ethno-medicinal data of plants used for respiratory disorders in Pakistan. Pharmacological activity of these plants (based upon published scientific research), distribution, diversity, use, preparation methods, economical value, conservation status and various available herbal products of some plants have also been explored. This study scrutinized various electronic databases for the literature on medicinal plants used in Pakistan to treat respiratory disorders. A total of 384 species belonging to 85 families used to treat respiratory disorders in Pakistan has been documented. Cough was the disorder treated by the highest number of species (214) followed by asthma (150), cold (57) and bronchitis (56). Most of the plants belongs to Asteraceae (32) and Solanaceae family (32) followed by moraceae (17), Poaceae (13), and Amaranthaceae (13) with their habit mostly of herb (219) followed by Shrub (112) and tree (69). Traditional healers in the region mostly prepare ethno medicinal recipes from leaves (24%) and roots (11%) in the form of decoction. Among the reported conservation status of 51 plant species, 5 were endangered, 1 critically endangered, 11 vulnerable, 14 rare, 16 least concern, 3 infrequent and 1 near threatened. We found only 53 plants on which pharmacological studies were conducted and 17 plants being used in herbal products available commercially for respiratory disorders. We showed the diversity and importance of medicinal plants used to treat respiratory disorders in the traditional health care system of Pakistan. As such disorders are still causing several deaths each year, it is of the utmost importance to conduct phytochemical and pharmacological studies on the most promising species. It is also crucial to increase access to traditional medicine, especially in rural areas. Threatened species need special attention for traditional herbal medicine to be exploited sustainably.
Respiratory disease is a common and significant cause of illness and death around the world. In 2012, respiratory conditions were the most frequent reasons for hospital stays among children. In Pakistan acute respiratory infections constitute 30–60% of outdoor patients in hospital including 80% upper respiratory tract infections and 20% lower respiratory tract infections. The most common problems of the respiratory system are: asthma, bronchitis, common cold, cough and whooping cough . Asthma affect about 300 million people worldwide and it has been estimated that a further 100 million will be affected by 2025 [2,3,4]. The prevalence of asthma in Pakistan is increasing day-by-day with an annual increase of 5% of which 20–30% are children. Nearly 20 million people (12%) of Pakistani adult population are already suffering from asthma while chronic bronchitis occurring in the population over 65 years of age was 14% in females and 6% in males. An estimated seven million cases of pneumonia occur every year in Pakistan and out of these, as many as 92,000 children die before their fifth birthday due to the infection.
Respiratory disorders are common in Pakistan due to its remoteness, cold and harsh climatic conditions as well as limited health care facilities. The people depend on the indigenous plant resources to treat various respiratory disorders. Herbal remedies for the treatment of respiratory disorders are common practice in many parts of the world.
Phyto-therapeutic agents are in use since ancient times for disease control but there use is greatly increased in last decade. By the end of twentieth century, 170 herbal drugs got official recognition. According to the WHO, 80% world population satisfy their primary health related needs by the use of phyto-therapeutic agents and 11% drugs are of plant origin among the essential drugs . Approximately 70–95% populations of developing countries use herbal drugs for basic health care . Pakistan is a rich producer of medicinal plants with more than 6000 species due to its climatic zones including high altitudes of Hindu-Kush Himalayas and Karakorum. About 600–700 (12%) species from the above mentioned figure are extensively used for medicinal purposes and various plants are also exported to foreign countries [7, 8]. From villages of Pakistan, 60% population use medicinal plants to fulfill their basic drug related needs .
During the previous few decades there has been an increase in the study of remedial plants and their folk usage in various parts of Pakistan. In the recent years numbers of information are documented on the use of plants in indigenous healing system either by ethnic people or rural communities around the world and Pakistanis increasing. The knowledge of ethno pharmacology and its holistic approach supported by experience can serve as a fuel for the discovery of safe, new and affordable medicines. Drugs development on the basis of natural products had an extensive history in the US, and in 1991, almost half of the drugs with maximum sale were natural products or their derivatives. With the passage of time, the emphasis on plant research is increasing day by day and stronger evidences are collected that proved the extensive use of medicinal plants in TM. Approximately 13,000 plants are investigated in previous 5 years .
The present study aimed at documenting the traditional uses of medicinal plants used to treat different respiratory disorders in Pakistan and to evaluate the efficacy of plant species based on the review of literature.
Specifically we sought to answer the following questions
What is the distribution and geographical patterns of medicinal plants used for respiratory disorders across the Pakistan?
Which plant species are most often used for treating respiratory disorders?
Which plant parts are most commonly used in ethno preparations?
Which preparation modes are commonly used to prepare the medicinal recipes?
Which respiratory conditions are most commonly treated with medicinal plant species?
Have pharmacological studies been conducted to confirm the traditional use of the medicinal plants against respiratory disorders?
Which plant species are used in herbal preparations for the treatment of respiratory disorders?
What is the economical and conservation status of the plant species used for respiratory disorders?
We believe that answering these questions will help to identify the plant species that have the potential to be explored in future lab trails. We also hope to highlight eventual under investigated areas.
Materials and methods
Published papers up till June 2015 were retrieved from the online bibliographical databases: PubMed, Google, Google scholar, Science direct, Springer link, IUCN redlist and drug Infosys. These databases were searched by using keywords like, traditional use of plants, medicinal uses of plants, indigenous use of plants, ethno botanical surveys and ethno-pharmacological studies of different areas of Pakistan (Provinces and districts). A total of 230 scientific papers based on ethno-botanical surveys of different areas of Pakistan were reviewed for this study (Punjab = 85, KPK = 58, Sindh = 15, Baluchistan = 8, Gilgit = 22, Kashmir = 42). Plants with the reported traditional usage against respiratory diseases were screened from the data gathered. A master list was generated enlisting all the medicinal plants used in Pakistan for the treatment of respiratory disorders (Table 1). Above-mentioned databases were also searched for pharmacological studies providing supporting evidence of medicinal uses for each species. Because of the massive number of studies been consulted only reference(s) were provided and complete information on pharmacological properties can be retrieved from the original studies. All the data has been summarized in six tables and six figures.
Respiratory disorders have been divided into 12 categories depending upon the diseases enlisted in published research articles on ethno botanical survey of Pakistan. Diseases or categories consisting of similar disorders or pharmacological effects have been grouped as single category. The plant list was prepared on the Pakistan level as a whole by enlisting each plant only once that is being reported in different provinces for the same respiratory disease.
The conservation status of plant species was determined following the IUCN red list categories and criteria version 3.1 (IUCN red list categories and criteria, 2001) and economical value of plant species were determined using scientific literature based on the commercial value of medicinal plants in Pakistan.
Results and discussion
Diversity of plants remains essential for human beings, providing numerous modern and traditional remedies to the healthcare system. It can be precisely assumed that the present day ethno-botanical pharmacology is as old as man himself. Different medicinal plants have been in use since the ancient time. Even in the present age of science and technology, people in the developed countries still rely on traditional system of healthcare not only because of its low price, but also due to very less side effects, as compared to the modern allopathic medicines. Pakistan is rich in natural sources including medicnal plants and most of inhabitants are in remote areas and have limited economical sources so they rely on the plants for their health care needs.
Ethno botanical surveys and distribution of medicinal plants
Pakistan has been bestowed with distinctive biodiversity, consisting of a variety of climates, topographical regions, and ecological zones and holds rich diversity of medicinal plants used against various ailments . The present review reported 385 plants of 85 families from different regions of Pakistan being ethno-medicinally used for treating different types of respiratory problems. Majority of 228 plants of 80 families were reported from Punjab followed by 148 plants of 60 families from Gilgit, 115 plants of 57 families from Kashmir, 95 plants of 48 families from KPK, 30 plants of 22 families from Baluchistan and 23 plants of 16 families from Sindh. Many of the plants were used in more than one region; those plants were counted just one time while enlisting. Literature review elucidates that majority of plant species being used for respiratory disorders in Pakistan belongs to Punjab. This botanical diversity from Punjab might be owing to its varied climate and soil types . The distribution of plants in different regions of Pakistan is shown in Fig. 1.
A large portion of Ethno botanical overview have been accounted for from 30 districts of Punjab followed by 18 districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 12 districts of Baluchistan, 9 districts of Sindh, 7 districts of Gilgit Batistan, 10 districts of Kashmir. Still there are number of under-investigated districts that need to be surveyed for ethno botanical studies including 6 districts of Punjab, 8 districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 20 districts of Baluchistan, 20 districts of Sindh and 1 district of Gilgit Batistan. Another reason for majorty of the plants from Punjab might be that ethnobotanical surveys have been reported from maximum areas of Punjab except a few, while some regions of Northern areas and many areas of Balochistan and Sindh have not so far been explored concerning ethnobotanical knowledge. A list of investigated and under-investigated districts has been mentioned in Table 2.
Diversity, habit, and part used of medicinal plants
A total of 384 medicinal plants of 85 families were found in the literature that are being employed for the treatment of respiratory diseases in Pakistan. The most commonly used plants were member of Asteraceae family (32) followed by solanaceae (32), moraceae (17), Poaceae (13), Fabaceae (13), Amaranthaceae (13), Lamiaceae (12), rosaceae (11), Violaceae (10), ranunculaceae (10), Asclepiadaceae (10), Euphorbiaceae (9), apiaceae (9), polygonaceae (9), Malvaceae (8), Acanthacea (8), brassicaceae (8), Boraginaceae (7), liliaceae (6), Capparaceae (5), Labiatae (5), Mimosaceae (5), Papilionaceae (5), Myrtiaceae (5) and 10 families contain 4 plants, 9 families containg 3 plant species, 12 families consisting of 2 plant species and 28 families contain 1 plant species. The results, in terms of percentage, of plants in each family are represented in Fig. 2. Asteraceae holds the top position among the families used in ethno-medicines which indicates the presence of effective bioactive ingredients in the members of this family . This predominance could be explained by worldwide highest number of species (23,000 species and 1535 genera) of this diverse family found in almost every habitat of all countries except Antarctica [14, 15]. Various secondary metabolites have been reported to be present in the members of this family especially sesquiterpene lactones, in addition to volatile oils and terpenoids [16, 17]. Perhaps these secondary metabolite profiles, together with the large number of species, are primarily responsible for the relevance of this family in traditional medicine. The prevalence of asteraceae family in medicinal use is not a new finding as studies from various other countries also reported similar results [18, 19]. Many species of asteraceae family are typically identified as weeds occurring in anthropogenic environments and are among the first species to emerge in the field after the soil is prepared for planting. This may contribute to the high rate of citations of species of this family in rural communities where the home gardens are the main source of medicinal plants .
Most of the medicinal plants used in ethno medicine for treating the respiratory disorders are herbs (219) followed by Shrub (112), tree (69) and only three (3) plant species are being documented as grass. Habit of plants in different regions of Pakistan is shown in Fig. 3. This predominance of herbs as a source of herbal therapies is often attributed to the fact that their high ethno botanical studies could be an indication of their abundance easy availability and the traditional knowledge . Whilst shrubs and trees seem to be preferred because of their availability round the year and they are resistant to drought and seasonal variations . Majority of herbal recipes include trees and shrubs due to their easy accessibility round the year, followed by utilization of herbs which might be related to their easy collection methods, higher abundance and efficacy in curing ailments as compared to other life forms [23, 24]. Thus variation in the use of medicinal plants growth form might be associated with the difference in socio-cultural believes, ecological status and variations in the practices of traditional healers.
It has also been revealed after literature review that leaves (131) are most commonly used in ethno medicine for the treatment of respiratory disorders. While other plant parts use frequencies are as follows, fruit (74), root (62), seeds (53), whole plant (70), stem (44), flowers (63), bark (23), and latex (6), and gum (6). Frequency of use of different plant parts are shown in Fig. 4. Preference of leaves over the other plant parts is commonly thought to be due to the reason that leaves are the photosynthetic organs containing the photosynthates which might be accountable for their medicinal values [25, 26]. It is may be due to the reason that the collection of leaves does not affect the life cycle of plant so it is preferred to use the leaves in ethno-preparations . Fruit was the second most commonly used plant part according to the literature of Pakistan. It has also been reported in different studies that Fruit is being commonly used by Americans as well . Roots were the third frequent used plant parts which may be due to the reason that active constituents are rich in roots [29, 30] but the collection of underground parts of the plant is not viable as it affects the plants life and such plants are considerd as highly threatened [31, 32]. The overview of ethno-botanical literature of whole country reveals that different plant parts are being used of the same plant in different areas which is may be due to the availability, ease of collection or ethnic believes of local people.
Use and mode of preparation
The reported plants were used in 12 different respiratory disorders. The highest number of medicinal plants documented are being employed in the treatment of cough (214) followed by asthma (150), cold (57), bronchitis (56), flu (42), respiratory tract infections (27), whopping cough (16) and breathing problems (16). Percentage of plants used in ethno-medicine for the treatment of different respiratory conditions is shown in Fig. 5.
Different recipes are being used by local peoples for the use of medicinal plants but most common mode of preparations of phytomedicines are decoction (110), powder (14), juice (18), infusion (30), paste (8), tea (8) and oil (4). Different mode of preparation of the plants is shown in Fig. 6. Decoctions are prepared by boiling the plant in water until the volume of water is reduced to half. Previously studies reported that decoction and infusion predominates  because these preparations are rapid to prepare, inexpensive and easy to consume. In addition, high usage of decoction might be related to their proven efficacy over many years’ trial and indigenous knowledge accumulated on effectiveness of such preparations.
Even though the literature was scrutinized exhaustively, there was missing information regarding the mode of preparation of ethno medicine. Many ethno-botanical studies published include raw lists of plants used medicinally, only indicating which parts are used for what ailments. Detailed preparation and application are rarely mentioned. These types of studies do not reveal the ideas underlying the use of the cited medicines nor do they explain why certain plants were selected. It is necessary to include precise medicinal indication for each species in future ethno-botanical studies in order to be able to reproduce the traditional preparations and understand their modes of actions. For example, individuals of the same species collected at different localities, in different seasons, even various times of the day and night or at different stages of growth might have strikingly different levels of active compounds . Comprehensive information about both the collection and handling of each plant remedy needs to be meticulously recorded.
Pharmacological evaluation and herbal preparations
An attempt has been made to investigate the pharmacological activity of the enlisted plants from available literature to confirm their traditional use against respiratory conditions. Only 53 plants out of 384 have been found on which pharmacological studies were conducted to evaluate their anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, smooth-muscle relaxants, anti-allergic, anti-histaminic, mast cell stabilizing, bronchodilator and antioxidant properties as these properties are useful for the treatment of respiratory conditions . Remaining 331 species mentioned in the table still needs to be pharmacologically evaluated in order to confirm their folkloric claim. Medicinal plants evaluated for pharmacological effects have been mentioned in Table 3.
Herbal formulations are the finished labeled products containing active ingredients or plant material or combination of medicinal plants . With the increase in demand of traditional medicine, worth of herbal industry is also increasing day by day . Local healers from different areas use different plants in various combinations to treat respiratory conditions. Some plants mentioned by tribal healers for the treatment of respiratory conditions are known to be used in the preparation of popular herbal medicines. Among such plants are Achyranthes aspera, Adhatoda vasica, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Viola odorata and Onosma bracteatum. The major domestic manufacturers like Hamdard, Qarshi, Ajmal and others produce 300–400 herbal products. A list of 17 commercially available herbal medicines used for respiratory conditions with their composition is mentioned in a Table 4. In recent time it is important to collect the valuable knowledge from local folklore regarding medicinal use of plants to treat respiratory conditions and give more focus on the useful pharmacological evaluation of medicinal plants for their protection, usefulness and effectiveness of this disease.
During the investigation of conservation status of medicinal plants used against respiratory conditions in Pakistan 51 plant species were evaluated through IUCN Red list categories and criteria. Among these species 5 were endangered, 1 critically endangered, 11 vulnerable, 14 rare, 16 least concern, 3 infrequent and 1 near threatened. Conservation status of 51 medicinal plants is mentioned in Table 5. Non-scientific and indiscriminate collection of medicinal plants in various parts of the area has led to the severe pressure on the availability of medicinal plants. Using the part like roots, rhizomes, bulbs could also be a severe threat for reproducing medicinal plants of the area. Unplanned collection, loss of habitat, increased exploitation and unsustainable harvesting, intensive grazing, and land leveling for agriculture, deforestation and erosion attack of pathogens were the major threats to the medicinal plants. According to IUCN threatened plant data base, about 32,000 species of plants are threatened with extinction. This figure represent 13% of estimated 250,000 of plants It is stated that rate of plant extinction has reached to one specie per day as a result of mentioned threats and it is considered 1000–10,000 time faster than that would occur naturally. If the trend remains constant, 60,000 and 100,000 plant species may disappear in the near future [38, 39]. So in order to save these medicinal plants some important measures should be taken. Government should distribute saplings each year among the villagers to plant them. Media should be used to save nature and its importance. Establishment of nurseries and botanical garden as well as local community awareness and involvement to protect these national assets will be the best conservation measure.
Commercially available important plants
Among the 384 plants used against respiratory diseases 58 plants belonging to 32 families were commercially important and are a source of income for the local community. These plants are used as drugs for treating respiratory diseases in traditional system of medicine. The detailed list of local uses, part used price and commercial status for each plant is mentioned in the Table 6. The prices of each species vary from year to year and also depend on demand and supply. There was an increase of three to fivefolds in prices from collectors to the national market .
In 2006 global trade of medicinal plants reached US$ 60 billion. Europe alone annually imports about US$ 1 billion from Africa and Asia. Such trade is expected to expand substantially by the year 2050 because of the increasing popularity of herbal medicines. Pakistan exports of high value plants generate over US$ 10.5 million annually in 2012, with a substantial percentage of the supply coming from Swat District . Approximately 300 plant species are being traded in Pakistan of these were 22 medicinal plant species worth 14.733 million Rs were traded in 1990 while it was increased by 8.5 folds (122 million Rs). The geographical location of Swat District provides an ideal physical environment for the growth and nourishment of many high value medicinal and aromatic plants. These medicinal plants can make a contribution to the economic development of the area in particular and the country in general .
Market share of Pakistan has been declining due to unreliable and often poor quality of the material supplied, length of the supply chain, and poor marketing strategies. The availability of medicinal plants drastically decreased due to increased marketing pressure on medicinal plants, lack of job opportunities in the area, non-sustainable harvesting methods like digging of whole plant and increased population of the area. So to maximize the exports and benefits of medicinal plants, trade monitoring, equitable sharing of benefits of wild resources, improved control on harvesting and trade for the conservation of resources, enhancement of cultivation efforts, future research into trade in wild harvested plants, community participation in natural resource management and value addition in the herbal products are recommended .
In this review, we described the medicinal plants used in Pakistan to treat respiratory disorders. Local people are using plants without any scientific base. There is a gap between traditional use of plants and pharmacological evaluation as well as very limited number of phytochemical studies has been documented. In recent time it is important to collect the valuable knowledge from local folklore regarding medicinal use of plants to treat respiratory conditions and give more focus on the useful pharmacological and phytochemical evaluation of medicinal plants for the isolation of novel compounds as well as for their protection, usefulness and effectiveness of this disease. We examined investigated areas across Pakistan in relation to medicinal plants richness and based on this we provide recommendations for the areas that should be targeted in future ethno-botanical surveys. From the review of literature it is deduced that proper documentation of data was lacking in several research articles studied. There were many spelling mistakes in the plant names and families. Life form, part used and mode of preparation for herbal remedies were also not stated in many published ethno-medicinal surveys. So in future ethno-pharmacological research with comprehensive information should be carried out in the under investigated areas to save the traditional knowledge and to take it to the light of science. Appropriate measures should be taken to increase the market share of Pakistan as well as to maximize the exports and benefits of medicinal plants. Properly monitored trade and marketing for stability in product supply, unbiased sharing of profits of wild resources, improved control on harvesting and trade for the conservation of resources, enhancement of cultivation efforts, creation of new markets for various products so as to profit the public, implementing rules and regulations at public level to facilitate attaining goals of economic development and ecosystem conservation, community participation in natural resource management and value addition in the herbal products are recommended.
The problems of biodiversity loss can be solved by underlying recommendations
Government should distribute saplings each year among the villagers to plant them.
Media should be used to save nature and its importance.
Initiating afforestation projects and controlling over grazing.
Reducing biotic pressure by supplying gas and electricity.
Establishment of nurseries and botanical garden as well as local community awareness and involvement to protect these national assets will be the best conservation measure.
Commercial exploitation of medicinal plants should make sure to safeguard the intellectual property rights of local people.
Providing educational material in native languages to update collectors about occurrence of medicinal flora, their therapeutic significance, and market values.
It is important to identify valuable species, precisely map their distribution, document their status, study their life cycle, and formulates guidelines for their conservation and management.
In essence, the current investigation identified that people from Pakistan discern and make use of 384 therapeutic plants, belonging to 85 families for respiratory disorders. Keeping in view the results, Asteraceae family contains more plants and herbs are the dominant life form, whereas among the parts, leaves have been maximally used in decoction form for the treatment of respiratory disorders. Moreover, 17 plant species are being frequently used by the manufacturers in different herbal products for the treatment of respiratory disorders and only 53 plants have been pharmacologically evaluated while 51 plants are in the IUCN threatened list as well as 58 plant species have reasonable commercial significance. This review will not only provide a baseline data for initial screening of promising plants used in respiratory disorders but also will be helpful for conducting phytochemical studies by the application of ethno botanical indices. The study also provides recommendations for the areas that should be targeted in future ethno-botanical surveys. The need of hour is to implement productive policies for the careful use of valuable ethno botanical inheritance of Pakistan and to fill the gap between ethno-medicine and pharmacological research, to fully elucidate promising significances of plant-derived medicines on public health.
Reddy KN, Reddy CS, Trimurthulu G. Ethnobotanical survey on respiratory disorders in Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh. Ethnobot Leafl. 2006;1:16.
Taur DJ, Patil RY. Antiasthmatic activity of Ricinus communis L. roots. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2011;1(1):S13–6.
Taur DJ, Patil RY. Mast cell stabilizing and antiallergic activity of Abrus precatorius in the management of asthma. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011;4(1):46–9.
Taur DJ, Patil RY. Some medicinal plants with antiasthmatic potential: a current status. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2011;1(5):413–8.
Haq I. Safety of medicinal plants. Pak J Med Res. 2004;43(4):203–10.
Singh P, Shukla R, Kumar A, Prakash B, Singh S, Dubey NK. Effect of Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils on Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production on Asparagus racemosus. Mycopathologia. 2010;170(3):195–202.
Ali SI, Qaiser M. A phytogeography analysis of the phanerogames of Pakistan and Kashmir. Proc R Soc Edinb. 1986;89:89–101.
Shinwari ZK, Qaiser M. Efforts on conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants of pakistan. Pak J Bot. 2011;43:5–10.
Haq I. Medicinal plants. Pakistan: Hamdard Foundation Press; 1983.
Karou D, Nadembega WMC, Ouattara L, Ilboudo DP, Canini A, Nikiéma JB, Simpore J, Colizzi V, Traore AS. African ethnopharmacology and new drug discovery. Med Aromat Plant Sci Biotechnol. 2007;1(1):61–9.
Hussain K, Shahazad A, Zia-ul-Hussnain S. An ethnobotanical survey of important wild medicinal plants of Hattar district Haripur, Pakistan. Ethnobot Leafl. 2008;1:5.
Hamayun M, Khan SA, Sohn EY, Lee IJ. Folk medicinal knowledge and conservation status of some economically valued medicinal plants of District Swat, Pakistan. Lyonia. 2006;11(2):101–13.
Bremer K, Anderberg AA. Asteraceae: cladistics and classification. Portland: Tim ber Press; 1994.
Jeffrey C. Introduction with key to tribes. In: Kadereit JW, Jeffrey C, editors. The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 8, Flowering plants. eudicots: asterales. Berlin: Springer; 2007 :61–87.
Barker MS, Kane NC, Matvienko M, Kozik A, Michelmore RW, Knapp SJ, Rieseberg LH. Multiple paleopolyploidizations during the evolution of the Compositae reveal parallel patterns of duplicate gene retention after millions of years. Mol Biol Evol. 2008;25(11):2445–55.
Cronquist A. An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. New York: Columbia University Press; 1982.
Adekenov SM. Sesquiterpene lactones from plants of the family Asteraceae in the Kazakhstan flora and their biological activity. Chem Nat Compd. 1995;31(1):21–5.
Uysal T, Ozel E, Bzkurt M, Ertuğrul K. Genetic diversity in threatened populations of the endemic species Centaurea lycaonica Boiss. Heldr. (Asteraceae). Res J Biol. 2012;2(3):110–6.
Stepp JR, Moerman DE. The importance of weeds in ethnopharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;75(1):19–23.
Daehler CC. The taxonomic distribution of invasive angiosperm plants: ecological insights and comparison to agricultural weeds. Biol Conserv. 1998;84(2):167–80.
Ahmed AA, Bassuony NI. Importance of medical herbs in animal feeding. World J Agric Sci. 2009;5(4):456–65.
Khan SM, Page S, Ahmad H, Harper D. Identifying plant species and communities across environmental gradients in the Western Himalayas: method development and conservation use. Ecol Inform. 2013;14:99–103.
Kumar D, Trivedi N, Dixit RK. Herbal medicines used in the traditional indian medicinal system as a therapeutic treatment option for diabetes management: a review. World J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2015;4(4):368–85.
Koffi N, Marie-Solange T, Emma AA, Noel ZG. Ethnobotanical study of plants used to reat arterial hypertension in traditional medicine, by abbey and Krobou population of Agboville (Cote d’ivoire). Eur J Sci Res. 2009;35:85–98.
Adeyemi OO, Akindele AJ, Nwumeh KI. Acute and subchronic toxicological assessment of Byrsocarpus coccineus Schum. and Thonn. (Connaraceae) aqueous leaf extract. Int J Appl Res Nat Prod. 2010;3(2):1–11.
Ghorbani A. Studies on pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the region of Turkmen Sahra, north of Iran: (Part 1): general results. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;102(1):58–68.
Bhat JA, Kumar M, Bussmann RW. Ecological status and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary of Garhwal Himalaya. Ind J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013;9(1):b5.
Sosnowska J, Balslev H. American palm ethnomedicine: a meta-analysis. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013;5(1):43.
Adnan M, Begum S, Latif A, Tareen AM, Lee LJ. Medicinal plants and their uses in selected temperate zones of Pakistani Hindukush-Himalaya. J Med Plants Res. 2012;6(24):4113–27.
Adnan M, Ullah I, Tariq A, Murad W, Azizullah A, Khan AL, Ali N. Ethnomedicine use in the war affected region of northwest Pakistan. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2014;10(1):16.
Maroyi A. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by the people in Nhema communal area, Zimbabwe. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;136(2):347–54.
Verma AK, Kumar M, Bussmann RW. Medicinal plants in an urban environment: the medicinal flora of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2007;3(1):35.
Merzouki A, Ed-Derfoufi F, Mesa JM. Contribution to the knowledge of Rifian traditional medicine. II: Folk medicine in Ksar Lakbir district (NW Morocco). Fitoterapia. 2000;71(3):278–307.
Jayanthy A, Prakash KU, Remashree AB. Seasonal and geographical variations in cellular characters and chemical contents in Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC.—an ayurvedic medicinal plant. Int J Herbal Med. 2013;2(3):34–7.
Savithramma N, Sulochana C, Rao KN. Ethnobotanical survey of plants used to treat asthma in Andhra Pradesh, India. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;113(1):54–61.
Ritch R. Potential role for Ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of glaucoma. Med Hypothesis. 2000;54(2):221–35.
Shinwari ZK, Watanabe T, Rehman M, Youshikawa T. A pictorial guide to medicinal plants of Pakistan. Kohat: KUST; 2006.
Shah M, Hussain F. Conservation assessment of plant resources of chakesar valley, District Shangla, KPK, Pakistan. Pak J Bot. 2012;44:179–86.
Shah SM, Hussain F. Ethnomedicinal plant wealth of Mastuj valley, Hindukush range, District Chitral, Pakistan. J Med Plants Res. 2012;6(26):4328–37.
Sher H, Hussain F. Ethnobotanical evaluation of some plant resources in Northern part of Pakistan. Afr J Biotechnol. 2009;8(17):4066–76.
Sher H, Aldosari A, Ali A, de Boer HJ. Economic benefits of high value medicinal plants to Pakistani communities: an analysis of current practice and potential. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2014;10(1):71.
Hamayun M, Khan MA, Begum S. Marketing of medicinal plants of Utror-Gabral Valleys, Swat, Pakistan. Ethnobot Leafl. 2003;2003(1):13.
Khan SW, Khatoon SU. Ethnobotanical studies on some useful herbs of Haramosh and Bugrote valleys in Gilgit, northern areas of Pakistan. Pak J Bot. 2008;40:43.
Hussain AM, Abbasi MS, Hussain N, Majid SA. A survey of important indigenous medicinal plants of district Bhimber Azad Jammu Kashmir, Pakistan. Int J Adv Res. 2013;1:635–44.
Mughal TA. Ethnomedicinal studies of flora of southern Punjab and isolation of biologically active principles (Doctoral dissertation). Lahore College for Women University, Lahore. 2009.
Ahmad M. Checklist of medicinal flora of Tehsil Isakhel, District Mianwali-Pakistan. Ethnobot Leafl. 2006;10:41–8.
Ahmad M, Sultana S, Fazl-i-Hadi S, Ben Hadda T, Rashid S, Zafar M, Yaseen G. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in high mountainous region of Chail valley (District Swat-Pakistan). J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2014;10:36.
Jabeen A, Khan MA, Ahmad M, Zafar M, Ahmad F. Indigenous uses of economically important flora of Margallah hills national park, Islamabad, Pakistan. Afr J Biotechnol. 2009;8(5):763–84.
Shah SM, Hussain F. Ethnomedicinal plant wealth of Mastuj valley, Hindukush range, District Chitral, Pakistan. J Med Plants. 2012;6:4328–37.
Qureshi R, Waheed A, Arshad MU, Umbreen T. Medico-ethnobotanical inventory of tehsil Chakwal, Pakistan. Pak J Bot. 2009;41:529–38.
Ali H, Qaiser M. The ethnobotany of Chitral valley, Pakistan with particular reference to medicinal plants. Pak J Bot. 2009;41:2009–41.
Hussain K, Shahazad A, Zia-ul-Hussnain S. An ethnobotanical survey of important wild medicinal plants of Hattar district Haripur, Pakistan. Ethnobot Leafl. 2008;12:29–35.
Amjad MS, Arshad M, Qureshi R. Ethnobotanical inventory and folk uses of indigenous plants from Pir Nasoora National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2015;5:234–41.
Ullah A, Rashid A, Parveen SN. Medicinal plants used in the isolated region of Bumburet, Kalash Valley, District Chitral, Pakistan. Pak J Weed Sci Res. 2014;20:359–73.
Hamayun M, Khan SA, Sohn EY, Lee IJ. Folk medicinal knowledge and conservation status of some economically valued medicinal plants of District Swat, Pakistan. Lyonia. 2006;11:101–13.
Mahmood A, Mahmood A, Naveed I, Memon MM, Bux H, Majeed MY, Mujtaba G, Mumtaz MS. Indigenous medicinal knowledge of common plants used by local people of Hattian Bala District, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. J Med Plants. 2011;5:5517–21.
Hussain I, Bano A, Ullah F. Traditional drug therapies from various medicinal plants of central karakoram national park, Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan. Pak J Bot. 2011;43:79–84.
Ahmed MJ, Malik ZH, Farooq A, Khan S, Nasar S. Biological spectrum and ethnomedicinal uses of plants in Chellah District Muzaffarabad Azad Kashmir Pakistan. J Adv Bot Zool. 2014;1:1–5.
Abbasi AM, Khan MA, Khan N, Shah MH. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinally important wild edible fruits species used by tribal communities of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;148:528–36.
Gulshan AB, Dasti AA, Hussain S, Atta MI, Amin-ud-Din M. Indigenous uses of medicinal plants in rural areas of Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab, Pakistan. J Agric Biol Sci. 2012;7:750–62.
Gorsi MS, Miraj S. Ethnomedicinal survey of plants of Khanabad village and its allied areas, district Gilgit. Asian J Plant Sci. 2002;1:604–15.
Arshad M, Ahmad M, Ahmed E, Saboor A, Abbas A, Sadiq S. An ethnobiological study in Kala Chitta hills of Pothwar region, Pakistan: multinomial logit specification. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2014;10:13.
Bano A, Ahmad M, Zafar M, Sultana S, Rashid S, Khan MA. Ethnomedicinal knowledge of the most commonly used plants from Deosai Plateau, Western Himalayas, Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;155:1046–52.
Begum S, Abdeislam NM, Adnan M, Tariq A, Yasmin A, Hameed R. Ethnomedicines of highly utilized plants in the temperate Himalayan region. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2014;11(3):132–42.
Bibi S, Sultana J, Sultana H, Malik RN. Ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants in the highlands of Soan Valley, Salt Range, Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;155(1):352–61.
Sher H, Aldosari A, Ali A, de Boer HJ. Economic benefits of high value medicinal plants to Pakistani communities: an analysis of current practice and potential. Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2014;10:71.
Ahmad KS, Habib S. Indigenous knowledge of some medicinal plants of Himalaya Region, Dawarian village, Neelum valley, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Univ J Plant Sci. 2014;2:40–7.
Hussain K, Shahazad A, Zia-ul-Hussnain S. An ethnobotanical survey of important wild medicinal plants of Hattar district Haripur, Pakistan. Ethnobot Leafl. 2008;2008(1):5.
Ibrar M, Hussain F, Sultan A. Ethnobotanical studies on plant resources of Ranyal hills, District Shangla, Pakistan. Pak J Bot. 2007;39(2):329.
Ishtiaq M, Mahmood A, Maqbool M. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants from Sudhanoti district (AJK), Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;168:201–7.
Janbaz KH, Hamid I, Qadir MI. Spasmolytic, bronchodilator and vasodilator activities of aqueousmethanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum. Int J Agric Biol. 2014;16(2):321–7.
Murad W, Azizullah A, Adnan M, Tariq A, Khan KU, Waheed S, Ahmad A. Ethnobotanical assessment of plant resources of Banda Daud Shah, District Karak, Pakistan. Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013;9:77.
Sabeen M, Ahmad SS. Exploring the folk medicinal flora of Abbottabad city, Pakistan. Ethnobot Leafl. 2009;2009(7):1.
Ahmed N, Mahmood A, Mahmood A, Sadeghi Z, Farman M. Ethnopharmacological importance of medicinal flora from the district of Vehari, Punjab province, Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;168:66–78.
Ahmed N, Mahmood A, Mahmood A, Tahir SS, Bano A, Malik RN, Ishtiaq M. Relative importance of indigenous medicinal plants from Layyah district, Punjab Province, Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;155:509–23.
Goraya K, Iqbal Z, Sajid MS, Muhammad G, ul Ain Q, Saleem M. Diversity of flora used for the cure of equine diseases in selected peri-urban areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013;9:70.
Rashid A. Ethnomedicinal plants used in the traditional phytotherapy of chest diseases by the Gujjar-Bakerwal tribe of district Rajouri of Jammu Kashmir state. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2013;4:328–33.
Murad W, Ahmad A, Ishaq G, Saleem Khan M, Muhammad Khan A, Ullah I, Khan I. Ethnobotanical studies on plant resources of Hazar Nao forest, district Malakand, Pakistan. Pak J Weed Sci Res. 2012;18:509–27.
Sarangzai AM, Ahmed A, Laghari SK. Traditional uses of some useful medicinal plants of Ziarat District Balochistan, Pakistan. FUUAST J Biol. 2013;3:101.
Abbas Q, Khan SW, Khatoon S, Hussain SA, Hassan SN, Hussain A, Qureshi R, Hussain I. Floristic biodiversity and traditional uses of medicinal plants of Haramosh valley Central Karakoram National Park of Gilgit district, Gilgit-Baltistan. Pak J Biodivers Environ Sci. 2014;5:75–86.
Razzaq IM. Ethnobotanical studies of some medicinal and aromatic plants of higher altitude of Pakistan. Am Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci. 2007;2:470–3.
Hamayun M. Ethnobotanical studies of some useful shrubs and trees of District Buner, NWFP, Pakistan. Ethnobot Leafl. 2003;2003(1):12.
Mahmood A, Mahmood A, Malik RN. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants from Leepa valley, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;143:338–46.
Bibi T, Ahmad M, Tareen RB, Tareen NM, Jabeen R, Rehman SU, Sultana S, Zafar M, Yaseen G. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in district Mastung of Balochistan province-Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;157:79–89.
Zareen A, Khan Z, Ajaib M. Ethnobotanical evaluation of the shrubs of Central Punjab, Pakistan. Biologia (Pakistan). 2013;59:139–47.
Iqbal H, Sher Z, Khan ZU. Medicinal plants from salt range Pind Dadan Khan, district Jhelum, Punjab, Pakistan. J Med Plants. 2011;5:2157–68.
Ahmad SS. Medicinal wild plants from Lahore-Islamabad motorway (M-2). Pak J Bot. 2007;39:355.
Khan K, Alamgeer EA, Ahmad B, Akram M, Aarshad MA, Junaid SU. Ethnobotanical studies from northern areas of Pakistan. Pharmacologyonline. 2009;1:328–54.
Rashid S, Ahmad M, Zafar M, Sultana S, Ayub M, Khan MA, Yaseen G. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinally important shrubs and trees of Himalayan region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;166:340–51.
Khan SW, Khatoon S. Ethnobotanical studies on some useful herbs of Haramosh and Bugrote valleys in Gilgit, northern areas of Pakistan. Pak J Bot. 2008;40(1):43.
Hadi F, Ibrar M, Dastagir G, Arif M, Naveed K, Adnan M. Weed diversity in wheat and maize with special reference to their ethnomedicinal uses at rich valley, Hindukush range, Chitral, Pakistan. Pak J Weed Sci Res. 2014;20:335–46.
Ahmad S, Ali A, Beg H, Dasti AA, Shinwari ZK. Ethnobotanical studies on some medicinal plants of Booni Valley, District Chitral Pakistan. Pak J Weed Sci Res. 2006;12:183–90.
Haider M, Zhong L. Ethno-medicinal uses of plants from district Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Curr Res J Biol Sci. 2014;6:183–90.
Mahmood A, Mahmood A, Mujtaba G, Mumtaz MS, Kayani WK, Khan MA. Indigenous medicinal knowledge of common plants from district Kotli Azad Jammu and Kashmir Pakistan. J Med Plants. 2012;6:4961–7.
Qureshi R, Ahmad M. Some notes on the vegetation of Achro thar (white desert) of Nara region, Sindh, Pakistan. Pak J Bot. 2010;42:2985–94.
Mahmood A, Mahmood A, Mujtaba G, Mumtaz MS, Kayani WK, Khan MA. Indigenous medicinal knowledge of common plants from district Kotli Azad Jammu and Kashmir Pakistan. J Med Plant Res. 2012;6:4961–7.
Mahmood A, Mahmood A, Malik RN. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants from Leepa valley, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;143(1):338–46.
Adnan M, Ullah I, Tariq A, Murad W, Azizullah A, Khan AL, Ali N. Ethnomedicine use in the war affected region of northwest Pakistan. Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2014;10:16.
Marwat SK, Usman K, Khakwani AA, Ghulam S, Anwar N, Sadiq M, Khan SJ. Medico-ethnobotanical studies of edible wild fruit plants species from the flora of north western Pakistan (DI Khan district). J Med Plants. 2011;5:3679–86.
Kapahi BK, Srivastava TN, Sarin YK. Traditional medicinal plants of Gurez (Kashmir)—an ethnobotanical study. Anc Sci Life. 1993;13:119.
Tareen RB, Bibi T, Khan MA, Ahmad M, Zafar M, Hina S. Indigenous knowledge of folk medicine by the women of Kalat and Khuzdar Regions of Balochistan, Pakistan. Pak J Bot. 2010;42:1465–85.
Shah AJ, Gilani AH, Abbas K, Rasheed M, Ahmed A, Ahmad VU. Studies on the chemical composition and possible mechanisms underlying the antispasmodic and bronchodilatory activities of the essential oil of Artemisia maritima L. Arch Pharm Res. 2011;34:1227–38.
Shaheen H, Qureshi R, Akram A, Gulfraz M. Inventory of medicinal flora from Thal desert, Punjab, Pakistan. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2014;11:282–90.
Mahmood T, Khan MA, Ahmad J, Ahmad M. Ethnomedicinal studies of kala chitta hills of district attock, Pakistan. Asian J Plant Sci. 2004;3(3):335–9.
Mayee R, Thosar A, Kondapure A. Evalution of antiasthmatic activity of Calotropis gigantea roots. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2011;4(2):33–5.
Panhwar AQ, Abro HI. Ethnobotanical studies of Mahal Kohistan (Khirthar National Park). Pak J Bot. 2007;39:2301–15.
Baloch MP, Marri MY, Qaisrani MA. Plants treasures, traditional knowledge and Baloch society. Bi-Annu Res J Balochistan Rev. 2013;28(1):1–5.
Ullah S, Khan MR, Shah NA, Shah SA, Majid M, Farooq MA. Ethnomedicinal plant use value in the Lakki Marwat District of Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;158:412–22.
Niaz S, Bokhari TZ, Sherwani SK, Younis U, Dasti AA. Ethnobotanical study of some medicinal plants of thal desert Punjab, Pakistan. Int J Pharm Res Biosci. 2013;2:31–41.
Bano A, Ahmad M, Hadda TB, Saboor A, Sultana S, Zafar M, Ashraf MA. Quantitative ethnomedicinal study of plants used in the skardu valley at high altitude of Karakoram-Himalayan range, Pakistan. Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2014;10:43.
Qasim M, Abideen Z, Adnan MY, Ansari R, Gul B, Khan MA. Traditional ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants from coastal areas. J Coast Life Med. 2014;2:22–30.
Naik SR, Bhagat S, Shah PD, Tare AA, Ingawale D, Wadekar RR. Evaluation of anti-allergic and anti-anaphylactic activity of ethanolic extract of Zizyphus jujuba fruits in rodents. Rev Bras Farmacogn. 2013;23(5):811–8.
Rauf F, Qureshi R, Shaheen H. Folk medicinal uses of indigenous plant species of Barroha, Bhara Kahu and Maanga in Islamabad, Pakistan. J Med Plants. 2012;6:2061–70.
Gul F, Shinwari ZK, Afzal I. Screening of indigenous knowledge of herbal remedies for skin diseases among local communities of North West Punjab, Pakistan. Pak J Bot. 2012;5:1609–16.
Ikram S, Bhatti KH, Parvaiz M. Ethnobotanical studies of aquatic plants of district Sialkot, Punjab (Pakistan). J Med Plants. 2014;2(1):58–63.
Murad W, Azizullah A, Adnan M, Tariq A, Khan KU, Waheed S, Ahmad A. Ethnobotanical assessment of plant resources of Banda Daud Shah, District Karak, Pakistan. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013;9:77.
Mughal TA. Ethnomedicinal studies of flora of southern Punjab and isolation of biologically active principles. Doctoral dissertation, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore. 2009.
Parvaiz M. Ethnobotanical studies on plant resources of Mangowal, District Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2014;4(5):364.
Ibrar M, Hussain F, Sultan A. Ethnobotanical studies on plant resources of Ranyal hills, District Shangla, Pakistan. Pak J Bot. 2007;39:329.
Qureshi R, Waheed A, Arshad M, Umbreen T. Medico-ethnobotanical inventory of tehsil Chakwal, Pakistan. Pak J Bot. 2009;41(2):529–38.
Qasim M, Abideen Z, Adnan MY, Ansari R, Gul B, Khan MA. Traditional ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants from coastal areas. J Coast Life Med. 2014;2(1):22–30.
Qasemzadeh MJ, Sharifi H, Hamedanian M, Gharehbeglou M, Heydari M, Sardari M, Akhlaghdoust M, Minae MB. The effect of Viola odorata flower syrup on the cough of children with asthma a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. J Evid Based Complement Altern Med. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156587215584862.
Alamgeer TA, Rashid M, Malik MN, Mushtaq MN. Ethnomedicinal survey of plants of Valley Alladand Dehri, Tehsil Batkhela, District Malakand, Pakistan. Int J Basic Med Sci Pharm (IJBMSP). 2013;3:23–32.
Rauf F, Qureshi R, Shaheen H. Folk medicinal uses of indigenous plant species of Barroha, Bhara Kahu and Maanga in Islamabad, Pakistan. J Med Plants Res. 2012;6(11):2061–70.
Rashid A. Ethnomedicinal plants used in the traditional phytotherapy of chest diseases by the Gujjar-Bakerwal tribe of district Rajouri of Jammu & Kashmir state. Int J Pharm Sci. 2012;4:328–33.
Ajaib M, Ashraf Z, Riaz F, Siddiqui MF. Ethnobotanical studies of some plants of tehsil Kharian, district Gujrat. FUUAST J Biol. 2014;4:65.
Khan BA, Abdukadir A, Qureshi R, Mustafa GH. Medicinal uses of plants by the inhabitants of Khunjerab National Park, Gilgit, Pakistan. Pak J Bot. 2011;43:2301–10.
Haq I. Safety of medicinal plants. Pak J Med Res. 2004;43:203–10.
Gilani SA, Kikuchi A, Shinwari ZK, Khattak ZI, Watanabe KN. Phytochemical, pharmacological and ethnobotanical studies of Rhazya stricta Decne. Phytother Res. 2007;21:301–7.
Saqib Z, Mahmood A, Malik RN, Mahmood A, Syed JH, Ahmad T. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants in Kotli Sattian, Rawalpindi district, Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;151:820–8.
Rehecho S, Uriarte-Pueyo I, Calvo J, Vivas LA, Calvo MI. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants in Nor-Yauyos, a part of the Landscape Reserve Nor-Yauyos-Cochas, Peru. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;133(1):75–85.
Khan A, Gilani SS, Hussain F, Durrani MJ. Ethnobotany of Gokand valley, District Buner, Pakistan. Pak J Biol Sci. 2003;6:362–9.
Zaman S, Hazrat A. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants from tehsil Dargai, district Malakand, Pakistan. FUUAST J Biol. 2013;3:109.
Awan AA, Murtaza G. Ethnobotanical uses of plants of family Solanaceae muzaffarabad division Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan-13100. Int Pharm Sci Invent. 2013;2:5–11.
Ahmad M, Zafar M, Sultana S. Salvadora persica, Tamarix aphylla and Zizyphus mauritiana-Three woody plant species mentioned in Holy Quran and Ahadith and their ethnobotanical uses in north western part (DI Khan) of Pakistan. Pak J Nutr. 2009;8:542–7.
Mahmood A, Mahmood A, Malik RN, Shinwari ZK. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants from Gujranwala district, Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;148:714–23.
Kuo SC, Chen SC, Chen LH, Wu JB, Wang JP, Teng CM. Potent antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory and antiallergic isoflavanquinones from the roots of Abrus precatorius. Planta Med. 1995;61:307–12.
Taur DJ, Patil RY. Some medicinal plants with antiasthmatic potential: a current status. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2011;1:413–8.
Bhosale UA, Yegnanarayan R, Pophale P, Somani R. Effect of aqueous extracts of Achyranthes aspera Linn. on experimental animal model for inflammation. Anc Sci Life. 2012;31:202.
Goyal BR, Mahajan SG, Mali RG, Goyal RK, Mehta AA. Beneficial effect of Achyranthes apsera Linn. in toluene-di-isocyanate induced occupational asthma in rats. Glob J Pharmacol. 2007;1:6–12.
Kajaria DK, Gangwar M, Kumar D, Sharma AK, Tilak R, Nath G, Tripathi YB, Tripathi JS, Tiwari SK. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and bronchodialator effect of a polyherbal drug-Shrishadi. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012;2:905–9.
Venkatesh P, Mukherjee PK, Kumar NS, Bandyopadhyay A, Fukui H, Mizuguchi H, Islam N. Anti-allergic activity of standardized extract of Albizia lebbeck with reference to catechin as a phytomarker. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2010;32:272–6.
Channa S, Dar A, Ahmed S. Evaluation of Alstonia scholaris leaves for broncho-vasodilatory activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;97:469–76.
Shang JH, Cai XH, Zhao YL, Feng T, Luo XD. Pharmacological evaluation of Alstonia scholaris: anti-tussive, anti-asthmatic and expectorant activities. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;129:293–8.
Šutovská M, Nosáľová G, Šutovský J, Fraňová S, Prisenžňáková L, Capek P. Possible mechanisms of dose-dependent cough suppressive effect of Althaea officinalis rhamnogalacturonan in guinea pigs test system. Int J Biol Macromol. 2009;45:27–32.
Khan AU, Gilani AH. Antispasmodic and bronchodilator activities of Artemisia vulgaris are mediated through dual blockade of muscarinic receptors and calcium influx. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;126:480–6.
Amin AH, Mehta DR. A bronchodilator alkaloid (vasicinone) from Adhatoda vasica Nees. Nature. 1959;184:1317.
Dhuley JN. Antitussive effect of Adhatoda vasica extract on mechanical or chemical stimulation-induced coughing in animals. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;67:361–5.
Gupta OP, Sharma ML, Ghatak BJ, Atal CK. Pharmacological investigations of vasicine and vasicinone—the alkaloids of Adhatoda vasica. Indian J Med Res. 1977;66:680.
Shaik YB, Castellani ML, Perrella A, Conti F, Salini V, Tete S, Madhappan B, Vecchiet J, De Lutiis MA, Caraffa A, Cerulli G. Role of quercetin (a natural herbal compound) in allergy and inflammation. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2006;20:47–52.
Mali RG, Dhake AS. Mast cell stabilizing activity of Bauhinia variegata. J Herbs Spices Med Plants. 2011;17:268–74.
Bokhari J, Khan MR. Evaluation of anti-asthmatic and antioxidant potential of Boerhavia procumbens in toluene diisocyanate (TDI) treated rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;172:377–85.
Savali AS, Biradar PR, Jirankali MC. Antianaphylasctic and mast cell stabilization activity of Cynodon dactylon. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2010;2:69–73.
Ko HJ, Kwon OS, Son KH. Inhibition of experimental lung inflammation and bronchitis by phytoformula containing Broussonetia papyrifera and Lonicera japonica. Biomol Ther. 2011;19:324–30.
Boskabady MH, Moghaddas A. Antihistaminic effect of Bunium persicum on Guinea Pig tracheal chains. Iran Biomed J. 2004;8:149–55.
Vadnere GP, Gaud RS, Singhai AK, Agrawal AS. Effect of Calotropis gigantea flower extracts on mast cell degranulation in rats. Pharmacolgyonline. 2010;3:298–303.
Tashkin DP, Shapiro BJ, Frank IM. Acute effects of smoked marijuana and oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on specific airway conductance in asthmatic subjects 1–3. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1974;109:420–8.
Trombetta D, Occhiuto F, Perri D, Puglia C, Santagati NA, Pasquale AD, Saija A, Bonina F. Antiallergic and antihistaminic effect of two extracts of Capparis spinosa L. flowering buds. Phytother Res. 2005;19:29–33.
Dalence M. SAR studies of capsazepinod bronchodilators. The A-ring and the coupling region. Organic Chemistry. Lund: Lund University; 2006.
Boskabady MH, Rakhshandah H, Shariati VM. Bronchodilatory and an ticholinergic effects of carum copticum on isolated Guinea Pig tracheal chains. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 1998;11:329–34.
Boskabady MH, Shaikhi J. Inhibitory effect of Carum copticum on histamine (H1) receptors of isolated guinea-pig tracheal chains. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;69:217–27.
Gilani AH, Jabeen Q, Ghayur MN, Janbaz KH, Akhtar MS. Studies on the antihypertensive, antispasmodic, bronchodilator and hepatoprotective activities of the Carum copticum seed extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;98:127–35.
Boskabady MH, Talebi M. Bronchodilatory and anticholinergic effects of Carum carvi on isolated guinea pig tracheal chains. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 1999;12:345–51.
Chaitanya B, Sagi SR, Shashikanth P, Karunakar K. Evaluation of anti-asthmatic activity of ethanolic extract of Ephedra gerardiana wall in mice by ovalbumin induced method. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2014;7:166–9.
Youssouf MS, Kaiser P, Tahir M, Singh GD, Singh S, Sharma VK, Satti NK, Haque SE, Johri RK. Anti-anaphylactic effect of Euphorbia hirta. Fitoterapia. 2007;78:535–9.
Kapoor M, Jasani N, Acharya N, Acharya S, Kumar V. Phytopharmacological evaluation and anti-asthmatic activity of Ficus religiosa leaves. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011;4:642–4.
Srivastava S, Gupta PP, Prasad R, Dixit KS, Palit G, Ali B, Misra G, Saxena RC. Evaluation of antiallergic activity (type I hypersensitivity) of Inula racemosa in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1999;43:235–41.
Mali R, Mahajan S, Mehta A. Studies on bronchodilatory effect of Lepidium sativum against allergen induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs. Pharmacogn Mag. 2008;4:189.
Mali PR, Patil CD, Rahila S, Mali PR, Asif K. Studies on antiasthmatic activity of aqueous extract of roots Mimosa pudica L. Int Res J Pharm. 2011;2:104–10.
Nirmal SA, Pal SC, Mandal SC. Antihistaminic activity of Nyctanthes arbortristis Bark. Pharmacologyonline. 2009;3:924–8.
Gupta YK, Katyal J, Kumar G, Mehla J, Katiyar CK, Sharma N, Yadav S. Evaluation of antitussive activity of formulations with herbal extracts in sulphur dioxide (SO2) induced cough model in mice. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;53:61–6.
Tashkin DP, Shapiro BJ, Frank IM. Acute effects of smoked marijuana and oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on specific airway conductance in asthmatic subjects 1–3. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1974;109(4):420–8.
Gilani AH, Khan AU, Raoof M, Ghayur MN, Siddiqui BS, Vohra W, Begum S. Gastrointestinal, selective airways and urinary bladder relaxant effects of Hyoscyamus niger are mediated through dual blockade of muscarinic receptors and Ca2+ channels. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2008;22:87–99.
Rivera DG, Hernández I, Merino N, Luque Y, Álvarez A, Martín Y, Amador A, Nuevas L, Delgado R. Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) and mangiferin reduce the airway inflammation and Th2 cytokines in murine model of allergic asthma. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011;63:1336–45.
Agbonon A, Aklikokou K, Gbeassor M. Mangifera indica. Stem bark effect on the rat trachea contracted by acetylcholine and histamine. Pharm biol. 2005;43:475–9.
Parmar S, Gangwal A, Sheth N. Mast cell membrane stabilization and anti-histaminic actions possible mechanism of action of anti-inflammatory action of Murraya koenigii. J Curr Pharm Res. 2010;2:21–5.
Boskabady MH, Mohsenpoor N, Takaloo L. Antiasthmatic effect of Nigella sativa in airways of asthmatic patients. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:707–13.
Kanter M, Coskun O, Uysal H. The antioxidative and antihistaminic effect of Nigella sativa and its major constituent, thymoquinone on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Arch Toxicol. 2006;80:217–24.
Gilani AH, Aziz N, Khurram IM, Chaudhary KS, Iqbal A. Bronchodilator, spasmolytic and calcium antagonist activities of Nigella sativa seeds (Kalonji): a traditional herbal product with multiple medicinal uses. J Pak Med Assoc. 2001;51:115–20.
Janbaz KH, Hamid I, Gilani AU, Qadir MI. Spasmolytic, bronchodilator and vasodilator activities of aqueous-methanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum. Int J Agric Biol. 2014;16:321–7.
Patel KG, Patel KV, Gandhi TR. Evaluation of the effect of Onosma bracteatum Wall (Boraginaceae) on bronchial hyperreactivity in sensitized guinea pigs. Iran J Pharmacol Ther. 2008;7:35–41.
Patel KG, Detroja JR, Shah TA, Patel KV, Gandhi TR. Evaluation of the effect of Onosma bracteatum Wall (Boraginaceae) using experimental allergic and inflammatory models. Glob J Pharmacol. 2011;5:40–9.
Kim HM, Yi DK, Shin HY. The evaluation of antianaphylactic effect of Oryza sativa L. in rats. Am J Chin Med. 1999;27:63–71.
Lee SH, Choi SM, Sohn YS, Kang KK, Yoo M. Effect of Oryza sativa extract on the progression of airway inflammation and remodeling in an experimental animal model of asthma. Planta Med. 2006;72:405–10.
Tong J, Fu J, Gao W, Liu Y. Cough and asthma-relieving effects of total alkaliods of Papaver nudicaule L. J Chengde Med Coll. 1997;15(1):6–9.
Boskabady MH, Boroushaki M, Aslani MR. Relaxant effect of Portulaca oleraceae on guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s) of action. Med Hypotheses Res. 2004;1:139–47.
Boroushaki MT, Boskabady MH, Malek F. Antitussive effect of Portulaca oleracea L. in guinea pigs. Iran J Pharm Res. 2004;3:187–90.
Taur DJ, Patil RY. Antiasthmatic activity of Ricinus communis L. roots. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2011;1:S13–6.
Nirmal SA, Patel AP, Bhawar SB, Pattan SR. Antihistaminic and antiallergic actions of extracts of Solanum nigrum berries: possible role in the treatment of asthma. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;142:91–7.
Yamada P, Iijima R, Han J, Shigemori H, Yokota S, Isoda H. Inhibitory effect of acteoside isolated from Cistanche tubulosa on chemical mediator release and inflammatory cytokine production by RBL-2H3 and KU812 cells. Planta Med. 2010;76(14):1512.
Patel PK, Patel KV, Gandhi TR. Evaluation of effect of Taxus baccata leaves extract on bronchoconstriction and bronchial hyperreactivity in experimental animals. Glob J Pharmacol. 2009;3:141–8.
Qasemzadeh MJ, Sharifi H, Hamedanian M, Gharehbeglou M, Heydari M, Sardari M, Akhlaghdoust M, Minae MB. The effect of Viola odorata flower syrup on the cough of children with asthma: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. J Evid Based Complement Altern Med. 2015;20:287–91.
Kheterpal K, Khanna T, Arora RB. In vitro and in vivo bronchorelaxant effect in guinea pigs of “joshina”—a herbal polypharmaceutical. J Ethnopharmacol. 1989;26:183–7.
Hongrui L, Zhe Z, Zhi L, Hua C, Xiuhua Y, Zan T. Anti asthmatic effect of scoparone on the asthmatic model of Guinea pig. J China Med Univ. 2000;29:333–4.
Thomas M, Sheran J, Smith N, Fonseca S, Lee AJ. AKL1, a botanical mixture for the treatment of asthma: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. BMC Pulm Med. 2007;7:4.
Aimbire F, Penna SC, Rodrigues M, Rodrigues KC, Lopes-Martins RA, Sertié JA. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Zingiber officinalis rhizomes on LPS-induced rat airway hyperreactivity and lung inflammation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2007;77:129–38.
Naik SR, Bhagat S, Shah PD, Tare AA, Ingawale D, Wadekar RR. Evaluation of anti-allergic and anti-anaphylactic activity of ethanolic extract of Zizyphus jujuba fruits in rodents. Rev Bras Farmacogn. 2013;23:811–8.
Yoshikawa M, Murakami T, Ikebata A, Wakao S, Murakami N, Matsuda H, Yamahara J. Bioactive saponins and glycosides. X. On the constituents of Zizyphi Spinosi Semen, the seeds of Zizyphus jujuba MILL. var. spinosa HU (1): structures and Histamine release-inhibitory effects of jujubosides A1 and C and acetyljujuboside B. Chem Pharm Bull. 1997;45(7):1186–92.
Xiang Q, Carter G, Rushforth K. Abies pindrow. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013:e.T42294A2970337.
Ved D, Saha D, Ravikumar K, Haridasan, K. Aconitum chasmanthum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015:e.T50126558A79578539.
World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Alstonia scholaris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1998: e.T32295A9688408.
Smekalova T, Maslovky O. Avena volgensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T172270A6861635.
Farjon A. Cupressus sempervirens. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T32518A2821211.
Magos Brehm J, Kell SP. Daucus halophilus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T172176A6843073.
Lansdown RV. Desmostachya bipinnata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T13579796A13596921.
Bell A, Bachman S. Ephedra intermedia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T201664A9159437.
Ved D, Saha D, Ravikumar K, Haridasan K. 2015. Aconitum chasmanthum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T50126558A79578539.
Zhuang X. Lemna minor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T164057A43121007.
Groom A. Mimosa pudica. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T175208A20112058.
Hernández HM, Gómez-Hinostrosa C, Cházaro M. Opuntia tehuantepecana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T152515A645517.
Taylor NP, Zappi D, Machado M, Braun P. Opuntia monacantha. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T46518A3007402.
Gupta AK, Sadasivaiah B, Bhat GK. Phyla nodiflora. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T164053A19646880.
Lopez Poveda L. Rhynchosia minima. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T19379374A20135353.
Yousaf MZ. Ethnobotanical studies of Khushab District, Punjab, Pakistan. Eur J Med Plants. 2014;1(4):110–9.
Durst PB, Ulrich W, Kashio M, Khan SA, Kunshan S, Gupta BN, Silitonga T, Yong PL, Khatri DB, Iqbal Sial M, Neri BS. Non-wood forest products in Asia. Bangkok: RAPA Publication (FAO); 1994.
All the authors have contributed equally in conducting research work and in writing research paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors acknowledge the financial support of Prince Abdullah Ben Khalid Celiac Disease Research Chair, Vice Deanship of Research Chairs, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Availability of data and materials
All the data collected is presented in the paper.
Consent for publication
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.