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Table 3 Pharmacological evaluation of medicinal plants

From: Traditional medicinal plants used for respiratory disorders in Pakistan: a review of the ethno-medicinal and pharmacological evidence

Scientific name Family Part used Traditional use Pharmacological effect Refs.
Abies pindrow Amaranthaceae Leaves Cough, asthma and other chest infection Brochoprotective against histamine-induced bronchospasm, cromoglycate-like action on the mast cells and inhibition of sensitization and synthesis of reaginic-type antibodies [40]
Abrus precatorius Leguminosae Root and leaves Asthma, cough Anti-allergic and Mast cell stabilizing effect in egg albumin induced degranulation of mast cells [137, 138]
Achyranthes aspera Linn. Amaranthaceae Leaves Pneumonia and asthma Antihistaminic, anti-inflammatory, mast cell stabilizer and bronchoprotective effect. Inhibits action of histamine, acetylcholine and 5-HT [139, 140]
Albizia lebbeck Benth Moraceae Bark Flu, cough, lung problems Bronchodialator, Anti-allergic, Mast cell stabilizing property due to histamine release and cytokine expression of antigen –ige activated mast cells [141, 142]
Alstonia scholaris Fabaceae Bark, Leaves Asthma Bronchodialator, anti-tussive effect against sulfur dioxide induced mice coughing and citric acid induced guinea pigs coughing. Anti-asthmatic activity against histamine induced bronchoconstriction [143, 144]
Althaea officinalis L. Lythraceae Flowers, leaves, roots, fruits Asthma and bronchitis Cough suppressant activity in citric acid-induced cough reflex [145]
Artemisia vulgaris Asclepiadaceae Leaves Asthma Bronchodilator due to anticholinergic and Ca2+ antagonist mechanisms [146]
Artemisia maritime Asteraceae Aerial parts Cough Bronchodilator activities mediated possibly through dual blockade of calcium channels and phosphodiesterase [102]
Adhatoda vasica Capparidaceae Whole plant Cough, bronchitis, asthma Antiallergic, anti-anaphylactic, anti-inflammatory, antitussive, bronchodilator and bronchoprotective activity [147,148,149]
Allium cepa Apiaceae Stem, leaves Cough Mast cell membrane stabilizing activity through inhibitor of mast cell secretion and decrease in the release of tryptase, MCP-1 and IL-6 [150]
Bauhinia variegata Mimosaceae Bark, root, buds Asthma Mast cell membrane stabilizing effect [151]
Boerhavia procumbens Rutaceae Roots Cough, asthma Anti-asthmatic and anti-inflammatory properties in Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) allergic model in rat [152]
Cynodon dactylon Ranunculaceae Leaves Asthma Anti-anaphylactic activity and mast cell stabilizing activity [153]
Emblica officinalis Euphorbiaceae Tree Cold, cough Anti-tussive activity [37]
Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent. Moraceae Fruit Cough Protective effect in lung inflammation and bronchitis [154]
Bunium persicum Apiaceae Seeds Cold, cough Anti-histaminic effect [155]
Calotropis gigantean Convolvulaceae All parts Cough and asthma Protective effect in anaphylaxis and allergic disorders due to antihistaminic and mast cell stabilizing effect [156]
Cannabis sativa Cannabiaceae Whole plant Cough Bronchodilator [157]
Capparis spinosa L. Capparidaceae Flowerl, seeds Asthma, cough Antiallergic and antihistaminic effect
Bronchorelaxant effects in histamine-induced bronchospasm
Capsicum annum L. Asteraceae Fruit Bronchitis Bronchodilator [159]
Carum capticum L. Violaceae Seeds, leaves and flowers Cough bronchitis and diarrhea Bronchodilatory and anti-cholinergic effect, anti-histamine effect [160,161,162]
Carum carvi L. Asteraceae Stem and leaves Bronchitis, cough Bronchodilatory and anti-cholinergic effect [163]
Ephedra gerardiana Ephedraceae Stem Asthma/breathing problem Anti-asthmatic activity in ovalbumin induced mice model [164]
Euphorbia hirta Labiatae Whole plant Asthma Antihistaminic, antiallergic activity and mast cell from degranulation [165]
Ficus religiosa L. Papilionaceae Fruit, leaves Asthma Mast cell stabilizing effect in histamine and acetylcholine induced bronchospasm model [166]
Inula racemosa Violaceae Root Asthma andbronchitis Anti-histaminic, anti-serotonergic and Mast cell membrane stabilizing activity [167]
Lepidium sativum Fabaceae Shoot Cough and cold Bronchodilator activity in histamine and acetylcholine induced bronchospasm model [168]
Mimosa pudica Linn. Lamiaceae Roots, leaves Asthma Bronchodilator in histamine induced bronchospasm model [169]
Nyctanthes arbortristis Asclepidiaceae Shrub flowers Cough Antihistaminic activity [170]
Glycyrrhiza glabra Adiantaceae Roots Cough Demulscent, anti-tussive and anti-asthmatic effects via modulation of th1/th2 cytokines and enhancement of cd4+ cd25+ foxp3+ regulatory t cells in ovalbumin-sensitized mice [35, 171]
Helianthus annuus Papilionaceae Flower, root, seed, leaves Asthma, bronchial Anti-asthmatic effect in Ovalbumin-induced mice [172]
Hyoscyamus niger Linn. Zygophyllaceae Whole plant Asthma, whooping cough Bronchodilator effect through dual blockade of muscarinic receptors and Ca2+ channels [173]
Trachyspermum ammi Malvaceae Seeds and oil Bronchitis, asthma and colds, cough Antiallergic, bronchodilator and spasmolytic effect (calcium antagonist) [173]
Mangifera indica Capparaceae Flowers, leaves, bark and fruits Asthma, cough Anti-allergic, anti-asthmatic anti-cholinergic and anti-histamine effect [174, 175]
Murraya koenigii Rosaceae Leaves Asthma Mast cell membrane stabilizing activity, anti-histaminic and anti-cholinergic effect [3, 176]
Nigella sativa Ranunculacea Seeds Whooping cough Anti-histamine, bronchodilator and anti-asthmatic effect in asthmatic patients [177,178,179]
Ocimum basilicum Solanaceae Leaves and seeds Bronchitis, cough, cold Bronchodilator and vasodilator activities through dual blockade of muscarinic receptors and Ca2+ channels [180]
Onosma bracteatum Moraceae Whole plant Asthma and bronchitis Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory action in bronchial hyperreactivity [181, 182]
Oryza sativa Salicaceae Fruit, leaves, stem Cold Antianaphylactic effect, anti-inflammatory action by inhibition of histamine release from mast cells [183, 184]
Papaver nudicaule L. Papaveraceae Herb Cough Cough and asthma-relieving effects in histamine phosphate induced asthma in guinea pigs [185]
Portula caoleracea Asteraceae Aerial parts Asthma Bronchodilator, anti-tussive and anti-asthmatic effect in histamiin induced asthmatic model bronchodilator effect, anti-tussive and anti-asthmatic effect [156, 186, 187]
Ricinus communis Leporidae Leaves Asthma and cough Antiasthmatic activity in milk induced leukocytosis and eosinophilic mice [188]
Salvia officinalis Linn. Liliaceae Leaves Cough, cold Bronchodilator effect via activation of voltage-dependent K+ channels and inhibition of phosphodiesterase enzyme [129]
Solanum nigrum L. Solanaceae Leaf, berries, flowers, root and stem Cough, bronchitis Mast cell stabilizing effect in milk-induced leucocytosis and eosinophilic mice [189]
Spinacia oleracea L. Amarylliadaceae Leaves Cough Anti-asthmatic effect in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic model [190]
Taxus baccata Linn. Moraceae Bark Asthma and bronchitis Protective effect against bronchoconstriction and bronchial hyperreactivity in e histamine and acetylcholine aerosol induced bronchospasm [191]
Viola odorata L. Berberidaceae Whole Plant Flu and cold Anti-asthmatic effect and Bronchodilator [192, 193]
Artemisia scoparia Waldst. and Kit. Asteraceae Whole plant Cough, chest problems Anti-asthmatic effect [194]
Vitexnegundo Linn. Verbenaceae Leaves Flu Anti-asthmatic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic mast cell stabilizing and bronchodilatory activity [182]
Cistanche tubulosa Poaceae Whole plant Cough Mast cell membrane stabilizing activity, anti-allergic effect [165, 190]
Zingiber officinalis Asclepiadaceae Stem, leaves Flu Anti-asthmatic anti-inflammatory and protection against LPS induced airway hyperreactivity [195, 196]
Ziziphus jujuba Mill Liliaceae Fruits Bronchitis Anti-allergic and anti-anaphylactic activity, anti-histamine action in milk induced eosinophilia and leukocytosis [197, 198]