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Table 6 Economical value of plants

From: Traditional medicinal plants used for respiratory disorders in Pakistan: a review of the ethno-medicinal and pharmacological evidence

Scientific name

Local name

Family

Part exported

Traditional use

Price/kg

Commercial status/exported to

Refs.

Acacia nilotica

Kikar

Apocynaceae

Flowers

Asthma

40

Increased

[214]

Achyranthes aspera Linn.

Puthkanda

Amaranthaceae

Rhizome/fruit

Pneumonia and asthma

Increased

[55]

Aconitum chasmanthum

Baroboma

Ranunculaceae

Roots

Cough, and asthma

25

Increased

[215]

Aconitum heterophyllum

Shaowboma

Ranunculaceae

Roots

Cough, asthma

400

Increased

[82, 215 ]

Aconitum violaceum

Bezhumolo

Ranunculaceae

Rhizome

Asthma, cough

250

Persistent

[55, 82]

Adhatoda vasica

Bansa

Capparidaceae

Leaves

Cough, bronchitis, asthma

5

Persistent

[215]

Adiantum capillus-veneris

Hansraal

Liliaceae

Whole plant

Coughs, bronchitis

250

Increased/Germany, Scotland, Iran and India

[82, 215 ]

Adiantum incisum Forssk

Pershoofa

Liliaceae

Fronds

Cough and cold

Increased/Germany, Scotland, Iran and India

[55]

Adiantum venustum

Sumbal

Liliaceae

Whole plant

Cough

5

Increased

[82]

Allium sativum

Thoom

Euphorbiaceae

Bulbs/leaves

Respiratory tract infection

 

Increased

[55]

Ammi visnaga

Chalveray

Amaranthaceae

Fruit

Bronchial asthma, breathing problems

40

Increased

[82]

Artemisia vulgaris

Baniru

Asclepiadaceae

Leaves/shoot, root

Asthma

12

Increased

[49, 55]

Atropa acuminataroyle

Lubbhar

Ranunculaceae

Whole plant

Cold, flu

12

Increased

[215]

Berberis lyceum

Kashmal

Papilionaceae

Wood roots

Cough

25

Increased

[82, 215 ]

Bergenia ciliate

Shaphus

Apiaceae

Leaves, rhizome, roots

Coughs and colds, asthma

300

Increased/China

[55]

Bistorta amplexicaulis

Saag

Polygonaceae

Rhizome

Flu

300

Persistent/Europe and India

[55, 82]

Bunium persicum

Zeera

Apiaceae

Fruit

Cold, cough

1000

Increased

[40, 55]

Calotropis procera

Akk

Asclepiadaceae

Roots, flowers

Cough

1000

Increased

[214]

Cannabis sativa

Bung

Cannabiaceae

Whole plant

Cough

10

Increased

[70]

Capsicum annum

Subzmirch

Asteraceae

Fruits

Bronchitis

Increased

[55]

Carum carvi

Sounjmik

Asteraceae

Seeds

Bronchitis, cough

160–180

Increased

[134]

Carum copticum

Ajwaindesi

Violaceae

Seed

Whooping, cough

15

Increased

[215]

Cassia fistula

Amaltas

Moraceae

Poods

Cough and flue

15

Increased

[215]

Cicer arietinum

Cholay

Myrtaceae

Fruit

Flu

40

Increased

[214]

Cichorium intybus

Qarali

Asteraceae

Leaves

Asthma and breathing problems

13

Increased

[49, 82]

Citrullus colocynthis

Bitter apple

Cucurbitaceae

Fruit

Bronchial asthma

50

Increased

[214, 215]

Colchicum luteum

Suranjaan-e-talkh

Colchicaceae

Coms

Bronchial diseases

500

Increased/Germany, South Africa, France and Bulgaria

[40, 215]

Coriandrum sativum

Dhaniya

Brassicaceae

Leaves/fruit

Respiratory tract infection

25

Increased

[55, 82]

Diospyros lotus

Amlok

Punicaceae

Fruits/leaves

Cough

300

Increased

[40]

Ephedra gerardiana

Soom

Ephedraceae

Fruit/leaves

Asthma/breathing problem

Increased

[55]

Ephedra intermedia

Somani

Ephedraceae

Bark/leaves

Asthma and tuberculosis

8

Increased

[82]

Eucalyptus globulus

Safaida

Moraceae

Bark/leaves

Flue

110

Increased

[214]

Foeniculum vulgare

Sonf

Papilionaceae

Leaves/seeds

Cough, pneumonia

20

Increased

[55, 214]

Fumaria indica

Pithpapadah

Fumariaceae

Shoot

Cough

Increased

[55]

Hyoscyamus niger

Khoobkalan

Zygophyllaceae

Seeds

Asthma, whooping cough

20

Increased

[215]

Juglans regia

Akhrot

Euphorbiaceae

Bark/fruit

Asthma

30

Increased

[55, 82]

Mentha longifolia

Jangli Podina

Labiateae

Whole plant

Cough

Increased

[55]

Origanum vulgare

Ganeyar

Violaceae

Root

Colds, flu, asthma

7

Increased

[82]

Peganum harmala

Harmal

Solanaceae

Seeds, leaves

Asthma

50

Increased

[214]

Pistacia integerrima

Kangar

Rosaceae

Leaves

Cough, asthma

Increased

[55]

Plantago lanceolata

Smanharswa

Plantaginaceae

Leaves/seeds

Cough and chest diseases

Increased

[55]

Punica granatum

Anar

Punicaceae

Fruit/bark/leaves

Cough

Increased

[55]

Portulaca oleracea

Asteraceae

Seeds/leaves

Asthma

Increased

[55]

Rheum australe

Chontal

Polygonaceae

Rhizome/leaves

Cough

10

Increased

[55, 82]

Salvia moorcroftiana

Gadakan

Malvaceae

Leaves/seeds

Cough

Increased

[55]

Sisymbrium irio

Khubkalan

Brassicaceae

Seeds

Cough

50

Increased

[214, 215]

Skimmia laureola

Nyra

Solanaceae

Leaves

Asthma

12

Increased

[82]

Solanum surratense

Kundiyara

Solanaceae

Fruits

Cough, asthma

Increased

[55]

Tamarix dioica

Rukh

Acanthaceae

Bark

Cough

100

Increased

[214]

Thymus linearis

Tumburu

Labiateae

Fruits

Cough, asthma

Increased

[55]

Trachyspermum ammi

Ajwain

Malvaceae

Fruits

Asthma and colds, cough

550

Increased

[40]

Viola biflora

Lilio

Pteridaceae

Flower

Cold and flu

16

Increased

[55, 82]

Viola canescens

Banafsha

Violaceae

Whole plant

Cough

16

Increased

[55]

Viola serpens

Banafsha

Violaceae

Flowers leave

Lung trouble

100–240

Increased/India, Germany and Scotland

[82, 215 ]

Withania coagulans

Akri

Meliaceae

Fruit

Cough, asthma

5

Increased

[215]

Withania somnifera

Asgand

Zingerberacee

Roots

Flu

35

Increased

[55, 215]

Zizyphus nummularia

Solanaceae

Fruit

Bronchitis

30

Increased

[214]

Zizyphus sativa

Mark Hany

Rhamnaceae

Fruit

Bronchitis

30

Increased

[55, 214]