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Table 6 Economical value of plants

From: Traditional medicinal plants used for respiratory disorders in Pakistan: a review of the ethno-medicinal and pharmacological evidence

Scientific name Local name Family Part exported Traditional use Price/kg Commercial status/exported to Refs.
Acacia nilotica Kikar Apocynaceae Flowers Asthma 40 Increased [214]
Achyranthes aspera Linn. Puthkanda Amaranthaceae Rhizome/fruit Pneumonia and asthma Increased [55]
Aconitum chasmanthum Baroboma Ranunculaceae Roots Cough, and asthma 25 Increased [215]
Aconitum heterophyllum Shaowboma Ranunculaceae Roots Cough, asthma 400 Increased [82, 215 ]
Aconitum violaceum Bezhumolo Ranunculaceae Rhizome Asthma, cough 250 Persistent [55, 82]
Adhatoda vasica Bansa Capparidaceae Leaves Cough, bronchitis, asthma 5 Persistent [215]
Adiantum capillus-veneris Hansraal Liliaceae Whole plant Coughs, bronchitis 250 Increased/Germany, Scotland, Iran and India [82, 215 ]
Adiantum incisum Forssk Pershoofa Liliaceae Fronds Cough and cold Increased/Germany, Scotland, Iran and India [55]
Adiantum venustum Sumbal Liliaceae Whole plant Cough 5 Increased [82]
Allium sativum Thoom Euphorbiaceae Bulbs/leaves Respiratory tract infection   Increased [55]
Ammi visnaga Chalveray Amaranthaceae Fruit Bronchial asthma, breathing problems 40 Increased [82]
Artemisia vulgaris Baniru Asclepiadaceae Leaves/shoot, root Asthma 12 Increased [49, 55]
Atropa acuminataroyle Lubbhar Ranunculaceae Whole plant Cold, flu 12 Increased [215]
Berberis lyceum Kashmal Papilionaceae Wood roots Cough 25 Increased [82, 215 ]
Bergenia ciliate Shaphus Apiaceae Leaves, rhizome, roots Coughs and colds, asthma 300 Increased/China [55]
Bistorta amplexicaulis Saag Polygonaceae Rhizome Flu 300 Persistent/Europe and India [55, 82]
Bunium persicum Zeera Apiaceae Fruit Cold, cough 1000 Increased [40, 55]
Calotropis procera Akk Asclepiadaceae Roots, flowers Cough 1000 Increased [214]
Cannabis sativa Bung Cannabiaceae Whole plant Cough 10 Increased [70]
Capsicum annum Subzmirch Asteraceae Fruits Bronchitis Increased [55]
Carum carvi Sounjmik Asteraceae Seeds Bronchitis, cough 160–180 Increased [134]
Carum copticum Ajwaindesi Violaceae Seed Whooping, cough 15 Increased [215]
Cassia fistula Amaltas Moraceae Poods Cough and flue 15 Increased [215]
Cicer arietinum Cholay Myrtaceae Fruit Flu 40 Increased [214]
Cichorium intybus Qarali Asteraceae Leaves Asthma and breathing problems 13 Increased [49, 82]
Citrullus colocynthis Bitter apple Cucurbitaceae Fruit Bronchial asthma 50 Increased [214, 215]
Colchicum luteum Suranjaan-e-talkh Colchicaceae Coms Bronchial diseases 500 Increased/Germany, South Africa, France and Bulgaria [40, 215]
Coriandrum sativum Dhaniya Brassicaceae Leaves/fruit Respiratory tract infection 25 Increased [55, 82]
Diospyros lotus Amlok Punicaceae Fruits/leaves Cough 300 Increased [40]
Ephedra gerardiana Soom Ephedraceae Fruit/leaves Asthma/breathing problem Increased [55]
Ephedra intermedia Somani Ephedraceae Bark/leaves Asthma and tuberculosis 8 Increased [82]
Eucalyptus globulus Safaida Moraceae Bark/leaves Flue 110 Increased [214]
Foeniculum vulgare Sonf Papilionaceae Leaves/seeds Cough, pneumonia 20 Increased [55, 214]
Fumaria indica Pithpapadah Fumariaceae Shoot Cough Increased [55]
Hyoscyamus niger Khoobkalan Zygophyllaceae Seeds Asthma, whooping cough 20 Increased [215]
Juglans regia Akhrot Euphorbiaceae Bark/fruit Asthma 30 Increased [55, 82]
Mentha longifolia Jangli Podina Labiateae Whole plant Cough Increased [55]
Origanum vulgare Ganeyar Violaceae Root Colds, flu, asthma 7 Increased [82]
Peganum harmala Harmal Solanaceae Seeds, leaves Asthma 50 Increased [214]
Pistacia integerrima Kangar Rosaceae Leaves Cough, asthma Increased [55]
Plantago lanceolata Smanharswa Plantaginaceae Leaves/seeds Cough and chest diseases Increased [55]
Punica granatum Anar Punicaceae Fruit/bark/leaves Cough Increased [55]
Portulaca oleracea Asteraceae Seeds/leaves Asthma Increased [55]
Rheum australe Chontal Polygonaceae Rhizome/leaves Cough 10 Increased [55, 82]
Salvia moorcroftiana Gadakan Malvaceae Leaves/seeds Cough Increased [55]
Sisymbrium irio Khubkalan Brassicaceae Seeds Cough 50 Increased [214, 215]
Skimmia laureola Nyra Solanaceae Leaves Asthma 12 Increased [82]
Solanum surratense Kundiyara Solanaceae Fruits Cough, asthma Increased [55]
Tamarix dioica Rukh Acanthaceae Bark Cough 100 Increased [214]
Thymus linearis Tumburu Labiateae Fruits Cough, asthma Increased [55]
Trachyspermum ammi Ajwain Malvaceae Fruits Asthma and colds, cough 550 Increased [40]
Viola biflora Lilio Pteridaceae Flower Cold and flu 16 Increased [55, 82]
Viola canescens Banafsha Violaceae Whole plant Cough 16 Increased [55]
Viola serpens Banafsha Violaceae Flowers leave Lung trouble 100–240 Increased/India, Germany and Scotland [82, 215 ]
Withania coagulans Akri Meliaceae Fruit Cough, asthma 5 Increased [215]
Withania somnifera Asgand Zingerberacee Roots Flu 35 Increased [55, 215]
Zizyphus nummularia Solanaceae Fruit Bronchitis 30 Increased [214]
Zizyphus sativa Mark Hany Rhamnaceae Fruit Bronchitis 30 Increased [55, 214]