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Table 6 Endangered species of Pakistan

From: Indigenous medicinal plants of Pakistan used to treat skin diseases: a review

Sr. no Botanical name Family Category Major threat Conservation action References
1 Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf ex Holmes Ranunculaceae CR I. Over harvesting and loss of habitat due to construction of high altitude roads and avalanch II. Regeneration of the species is hampered due to unsustainable collection of tubers and roots I. Intensive studies on the population trend, reproductive biology and propagation techniques should be carried out to support conservation action programs II. Habitat managment and sustainable collection practice III. Active in situ conservation may be undertaken in protected areas IV.Surveying and monitoring is needed across the known range of occurrence to ascertain the status of wild subpopulations http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/50126558/0 (assessed on 25.12.2016)
2 Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle Ranunculaceae EN I. Loss of habitat due to road construction and unsustainable collection from wild II. Large scale collection III. This species is under severe threat due to illegal collection and marketing I. Intensive studies on the population trend, reproductive biology and propagation techniques should be carried out to support conservation action programs II. Habitat managment and sustainable collection practice III. Active in situ conservation may be undertaken in protected areas IV. Surveying and monitoring is needed across the known range of occurrence to ascertain the status of wild subpopulations http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/50126560/0 (assessed on 25.12.2016)
3 Aconitum violaceum Jacquem. ex Stapf Ranunculaceae VU I. Loss of habitat due to agriculture and unsustainable II. Collection from wild I. Habitat loss and over exploitation II. It needs immediate attention in habitat management and sustainable collection practices III. Active in situ conservation should be undertaken in protected areas IV. Surveying and monitoring is also needed throughout the known historic range of the taxon to ascertain the status of all recorded subpopulations V. Intensive studies on population trend, reproductive biology and propagation techniques need to be carried out to support conservation action programs http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/50126560 (assessed on 25.12.2016)
4 Betula utilis D. Don Batulaceae LC I. Over exploitation as it is a high value medicinal plant II. In the Mankial Valley Hindukush Range, Pakistan, 85% of the population has decreased Harvesting must be sustainable to ensure the survival of this species http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/194535/0 (assessed on 25.12.2016)
5 Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex D. Don) G. Don Pinaceae LC I. Intensive logging (legal and illegal) II. Deforestation and conversion of forests for agriculture may also pose local threats in some parts of Pakistan and India Known from several protected areas across its range http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/42304/0 (assessed on 25.12.2016)
6 Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari Burseraceae CR I. Unsustainable collection of multiple parts, high volume trade and loss of habitat II. Grazing and browsing by sheep and goats III. Collection of branches as fuel wood during the rainy season, scarcity or festive times IV. This species demonstrates one of the most generic problems of conservation V. Overexploitation, a narrow extent of occurrence, small area of occupancy, severe fragmentation of populations, very low regeneration and invasion of alien species mean that C. wightii is facing a high extinction risk I. Biotic pressure should be regulated II. Standard and better gum extraction technique could minimize the mortality rate of the species (Dixit and Rao 2000) III. Ex situ conservation and multiplication through micro and macro propagation technique IV. Some attention and efforts have been brought into the system by identifying and documenting more than 100 forest areas (MPCAs) http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/31231/0 (assessed on 25.12.2016)
7 Ephedra intermedia Schrenk ex C.A. Mey. Ephedraceae LC Over harvesting should be investigated Monitoring of wild harvesting is recommended to better understand how this is affecting population size http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/201664/0 (assessed on 25.12.2016)
8 Gentiana kurroo Royle Gentianaceae CR I. Loss of habitat and unregulated harvesting. Due to road construction and agricultural invasion II. Over grazing and human settlements III. Climate change, in terms of temperature and rainfall, has severe impacts on the population and habitat I. It needs immediate attention in terms of trade regulation, habitat management and sustainable collection practice II. Ex situ conservation and cultivation may help to reduce the pressure on wild population http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/50126594/0 (assessed on 25.12.2016)
9 Juniperus excels M. Bieb. Cupressaceae LC No specific range wide threats have been identified for this species; over exploitation and habitat degradation and conversion may be localised problems This species is known from several protected areas throughout its range http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/42232/0 (assessed on 25.12.2016)
10 Juniperus squamata Lamb. Cupressaceae LC Overgrazing This species is recorded from many protected areas http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/42254/0 (assessed on 25.12.2016)
11 Pinus gerardiana Wall. Ex D. Don Pinaceae NT I. Conversion for pine forests for agricultural use, increasing the degree of fragmentation, and overgrazing that prevents natural regeneration II. Over harvesting of seed cones contributes to poor regeneration III. Over exploitation for firewood I. In Afghanistan, plantations have been established to supply the seeds II. In other parts of its range P. gerardiana forests are included within protected areas III. A combination of reafforestation programmes coupled with sustainable use strategies are needed before this species declines sufficiently to become eligible for a threatened category http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/34189/0 (assessed on 25.12.2016)
12 Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Pinaceae LC While forest destruction and logging have reduced the area of occupancy (AOO) of P. roxburghii, it is still covering extensive areas (an estimated 0.87 million ha in India alone) and is therefore not considered to be threatened with extinction. Improved methods of resin tapping have decreased the risk of trees dying prematurely This species occurs in some protected areas http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/42412/0 (assessed on 25.12.2016)
13 Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jacks. Pinaceae LC Potentially, over-exploitation could negatively impact the population, but the species is too common and wide-spread for this to have serious consequences other than locally This species occurs in several protected areas http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/42427/0 (assessed on 25.12.2016)
  1. CR, critically endangered; EN, endangered; LC, least concern; NT, near threat; VU, vulnerable