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Table 3 Pharmacological activities and mechanisms of some compounds isolated from Wu-Ling-Zhi and Hei-Bing-Pian

From: Fecal medicines used in traditional medical system of China: a systematic review of their names, original species, traditional uses, and modern investigations

Name Classification Compound Pharmacological activity Effect and mechanism Refs.
Wu-Ling-Zhi Terpenoids Tormentic acid Antiangiogenic activity Controlling abnormal proliferation and cell death resistance of vascular smooth muscle cell without affecting the normal vasculature [68]
Euscaphic acid Anti-inflammatory activity Inhibition of LPS-induced inflammatory responses by interference with the clustering of TRAF6 with IRAK1 and TAK1 [69]
Jacoumaric acid Cytotoxic activity Significant cytotoxicity effect against P-388 lymphocytic leukemia cell [10]
3-O-cis-p-coumaroy ltormentic acid
2α-hydroxy ursolic acid Anticancer activity Inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by regulating the p38/MAPK signal transduction pathway [70]
Pomolic acid Anti-inflammatory and apoptotic activities Inhibiting inflammatory response by regulating human neutrophil function [71]
Ursolic acid Anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities Inhibition of tumor growth and induction of apoptosis by modulating the MAPK/ERK and PI3 K/AKT/mTOR pathways; Inhibiting inflammation by suppression of NF-κB, AP-1 and NF-AT activity [72]
Maslinic acid Anticancer activity It can significantly suppress pancreatic tumor growth, induce tumor apoptosis and inhibit NF-κB-regulated anti-apoptotic gene expression [73]
Wulingzhic acid Anticoagulative activity Prolongation of thrombin time and inhibiting platelet aggregation [13, 19]
Wulingzhic acid A
Wulingzhic acid B
Trogopteroids A–G Cytotoxic activity Cytotoxicity effect against seven human tumor cells, such as HepG2, HL-60 and U937 [12]
Macrophynin E
Ferruginol Gastroprotective activity Increasing PGs content, protecting cells from lipid peroxidation and improving gastric ulcer healing [74]
Epifriedelanol Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities Attenuating the secondary injury in TBI rats by reducing serum cytokine levels and oxidative stress [75]
Flavonoids Hinokiflavone Anti-inflammatory activity Inhibiting the LPS-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 and the activation of NF-κB and ERK-1/2 [76]
Amentoflavone Anti-diabetic activity Regulating glucose and lipid metabolism via anti-oxidant effects and activating the PI3K/Akt pathway [77]
Kaempferol-3-O-α-l-(2″E,4″E-di-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnoside Anticoagulative activity Significant prolongation of thrombin time [14]
Afzelin Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities Inhibiting particulate matter-induced proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression and protein secretion; Inhibiting intracellular ROS generation, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and transcription factor activator protein-1 component c-Fos and c-Jun activation [78]
Quercitrin Gastroprotective and antioxidant activities Inhibition of oxidative stress, regulation of mitochondrial dysfunction, and initiation of antioxidant defense [79]
Lignans Trogopterins A, B, and C Cytotoxic activity Cytotoxicity effect against different types of cancer cells, such as HL-60, HeLa, and MCF-7 [16]
Steroids Daucosterol Anti-colitis activity Inhibiting dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice by relieving inflammation and restoring the number of Treg cells [80]
β-sitosterol Anti-inflammatory activity Inhibition of intracellular adhesion molecule 1 expression in TNF-α-stimulated HAEC as well as the binding of U937 cells to TNF-α-stimulated HAEC and attenuating the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kB p65 [81]
Cholic acid Anti-inflammatory activity Significantly decreasing the content of PGE2 in inflammatory tissue [82]
Deoxycholic acid Anti-inflammatory activity Inhibiting fMLP-induced monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis and calcium mobilization [83]
Ursodeoxycholic acid Anti-inflammatory activity Ameliorating experimental colonic inflammation in rats at a high dose (50 mg/kg day) by enhancing mucosal defense [84]
Taurocholic acid Anti-inflammatory activity Inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators, such as NO, PGE2 and histamine [85]
Others Bis(7-hydroxyheptyl)decanedioate Anticoagulative activity Significant prolongation of thrombin time [17]
Protocatechuic acid Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities Significantly decreasing LPO, NO levels and increasing SOD, catalase and GSH levels; significantly increasing the hot pain threshold of experimental mice, and obviously decreasing the frequency of writhing body response [91]
Hei-Bing-Pian Steroids Cholic acid Anti-inflammatory activity Significantly decreasing the content of PGE2 in inflammatory tissue [82]
Taurocholic acid Anti-inflammatory activity Inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators, such as NO, PGE2, and histamine [85]