Commission CP. Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China Part. I. Beijing: People’s Medical Publishing House; 2020.
Shang X, He X, He X, Li M, Zhang R, Fan P. The genus Scutellaria an ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;128:279–313.
Liu ZB, Sun CP, Xu JX, Morisseau C, Hammock BD, Qiu F. Phytochemical constituents from Scutellaria baicalensis in soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition: kinetics and interaction mechanism merged with simulations. Int J Biol Macromol. 2019;133:1187–93.
Dinda B, Dinda S, Dassharma S, Banik R, Chakraborty A, Dinda M. Therapeutic potentials of baicalin and its aglycone, baicalein against inflammatory disorders. Eur J Med Chem. 2017;131:68–80.
Yan B, Xu W, Su S, Zhu S, Zhu Z, Zeng H, Zhao M, Qian D, Duan JA, Duan J. Comparative analysis of 15 chemical constituents in Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf from different regions in China by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. J Sep Sci. 2017;40:3570–81.
Zhao Q, Yang J, Cui MY, Liu J, Fang YM, Yan MX, Qiu WQ, Shang HW, Xu ZC, Yidiresi R, Weng JK, Pluskal T, Vigouroux M, Steuernagel B, Wei YK, Yang L, Hu YH, Chen XY, Martin C. The reference genome sequence of Scutellaria baicalensis provides insights into the evolution of Wogonin biosynthesis. Mol Plant. 2019;12:935–50.
Shi L, Hao Z, Zhang S, Wei M, Lu B, Wang Z, Ji L. Baicalein and baicalin alleviate acetaminophen-induced liver injury by activating Nrf2 antioxidative pathway: the involvement of ERK1/2 and PKC. Biochem Pharmacol. 2018;150:9–23.
Wang QQ, Xu HO, Zhao XF. Baicalin inhibits human cervical cancer cells by suppressing protein kinase C/signal transducer and activator of transcription (PKC/STAT3) signaling pathway. Med Sci Monit. 2018;24:1955–61.
Ma QH, Ren MY, Luo JB. San Wu Huangqin decoction regulates inflammation and immune dysfunction induced by influenza virus by regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway in H1N1-infected mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2021;264:112800.
Xiao SW, Zhang ZM, Chen MJ, Zou JF, Jiang S, Qian DW, Duan JN. Xiexin Tang ameliorates dyslipidemia in high-fat diet-induced obese rats via elevating gut microbiota-derived short chain fatty acids production and adjusting energy metabolism. J Ethnopharmacol. 2019;241:112032.
Zhang JF. 4 cases of skin diseases treated by adding or subtracting the antiseptic Dan of manna. Hunan J Tradit Chin Med. 2016;36:89–90.
Jia Q, Shen D, Tang SH, Li DF, Zhang YH. Analysis of the law of the use of proprietary medicine containing Scutellaria baicalensis root. Chin J Chin Materia Med. 2014;39:634–8.
Hong HD, Liu CX, Hong Y, Huang HT, Li DT, Pan Y, Chen S, Chen CR. Mining and analysis of the formulation rules of Chinese patent medicine for cold based on 2015 Edition of Chinese Pharmacopeia (Part I). China Pharm. 2019;30:1812–6.
Commission CP. Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China Part IV. Beijing: People’s Medical Publishing House; 2020.
Song J, Ke R, Zhang M, Fei G, Ma X, Qiu J. Interface interaction and compatibility molecular dynamics verification of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi extracts/PBS dyeing and antibacterial composites. Mater Res Express. 2019;6:075403.
Zhang S, Qu Z, Hsueh CC, Chang CT, Chen BY. Deciphering electron-shuttling characteristics of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and ingredients for bioelectricity generation in microbial fuel cells. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng. 2019;96:361–73.
Liao XD, Wen Q, Zhang LY, Lu L, Zhang LY, Luo XG. Effect of dietary supplementation with flavonoid from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi on growth performance, meat quality and antioxidative ability of broilers. J Integr Agric. 2018;17:1165–70.
Zhou Y, Yang ZY, Tang RC. Bioactive and UV protective silk materials containing baicalin—the multifunctional plant extract from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Mater Sci Eng C. 2016;67:336–44.
Kim HM, Lim YY, Cho SM, Kim MY, Son IP, Suk JM, Park JO, Park JH, Cho JW. The evaluation of skin safety and skin cell toxicity for Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi extract according to extraction conditions. Korean J Dermatol. 2012;50:959–68.
Xu N, Meng FY, Zhou GF, Li YF, Wang B, Lu H. Assessing the suitable cultivation areas for Scutellaria baicalensis in China using the Maxent model and multiple linear regression. Biochem Syst Ecol. 2020;90:104052.
Cao X, You G, Li H, Li D, Wang M, Ren X. Comparative investigation for rotten xylem (kuqin) and strip types (tiaoqin) of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi based on fingerprinting and chemical pattern recognition. Molecules. 2019;24:2431.
Chen BH, Chen BX. Research progress of radix scutellariae. World Latest Med Inf. 2019;19:132–4.
Sandanov DV, Rosbakh S. Demographic structure of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi depending on climatic gradients and local factors. Russ J Ecol. 2019;50:404–7.
Zhang T, Cheng L, Yang LL, Lin HM, Yang LM, Han M. Effects of ecological factors and gene expression of key enzymes on synthesis of major medicinal ingredients of Scutellaria baicalensis in autumn. Chin Tradit Herb Drugs. 2019;50:936–44.
Liu SL, Chen JB, Zhou Q, Sun SQ. Analysis of the harvest seasons of Scutellaria Baicalensis Georgi by tri-step identification of infrared spectroscopy and principal component analysis. Spectrosc Spectr Anal. 2012;32:2669–73.
Cheng L, Han M, Yang LM, Li Y, Sun Z, Zhang T. Changes in the physiological characteristics and baicalin biosynthesis metabolism of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi under drought stress. Ind Crops Prod. 2018;122:473–82.
Sun C, Zhang M, Dong H, Liu W, Guo L, Wang X. A spatially-resolved approach to visualize the distribution and biosynthesis of flavones in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2020;179:113014.
Treutter D. Significance of flavonoids in plant resistance andenhancedment of their biosynthesis. Plant Biol. 2005;7:581–91.
Nagashima S, Hirotani M, Yoshikawa T. Purification and characterization of UDP- glucuronate Baicalein 7-O-glucuronosyltransferase from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi cell suspension cultures. Phytochemistry. 2000;53:533–8.
Su H, Song S, Yan X, Fang L, Zeng B, Zhu Y. Endogenous salicylic acid shows different correlation with baicalin and baicalein in the medicinal plant Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi subjected to stress and exogenous salicylic acid. PLoS ONE. 2018;13:1–16.
Chai CC, Cao Y, Mao M, Wang JY, Liu N, Li XX, Zhang K, Chen DL, Wei LY. Evaluation of taste changes after wine-frying of Scutellariae Radix based on electronic ongue technology and its application in identification of Scutellariae Radix pieces. Chin J Chin Mater Med. 2020;45:2552–9.
Yuan Y, Liu Y, Wu C, Chen S, Wang Z, Yang Z. Water deficit affected flavonoid accumulation by regulating hormone metabolism in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi roots. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:1–10.
Tang WT, Fang MF, Liu X, Yue M. Simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of flavonoids from ultraviolet-B radiation in leaves and roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi Using LC-UV-ESI-Q/TOF/MS. J Anal Methods Chem. 2014;2014.
Su H, Yu C, Shang J, Yan X, Liao P, Zhu Y. Effects of endogenous salicylic acid synthesized through PAL and ICS pathway on baicalin and baicalein accumulation in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Acta Physiol Plant. 2016;38:1–9.
Anna YS, Alexandra LS, Svetlana AS. Influence of spectral light composition on flavones formation in callus culture of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Pharmacogn Mag. 2020;16:156–60.
Zhao T, Tang H, Xie L, Zheng Y, Ma Z, Sun Q. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. (Lamiaceae): a review of its traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2019;71:1353–69.
Ji S, Li R, Wang Q, Miao WJ, Li ZW, Si LL, Qiao X, Yu SW, Zhou DM, Ye M. Anti-H1N1 virus, cytotoxic and Nrf2 activation activities of chemical constituents from Scutellaria baicalensis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;176:475–84.
Wang ZL, Wang S, Kuang Y, Hu ZM, Qiao X, Ye M. A comprehensive review on phytochemistry, pharmacology, and flavonoid biosynthesis of Scutellaria baicalensis. Pharm Biol. 2018;56:465–84.
Seo ON, Kim GS, Kim YH, Park S, Jeong SW, Lee SJ, Jin JS, Shin SC. Determination of polyphenol components of Korean Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: contribution to overall antioxidant activity. J. Funct. Foods. 2013;5:1741–50.
Zhang BY. Study on Chemical Constituents of the aerial parts of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Qiqihaer University; 2012.
Gharari Z, Bagheri K, Danafar H, Sharafi A. Enhanced flavonoid production in hairy root cultures of Scutellaria bornmuelleri by elicitor induced over-expression of MYB7 and FNSII2 genes. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2020;148:35–44.
Zhao Q, Cui MY, Levsh O, Yang DF, Liu J, Li J, Hill L, Yang L, Hu YH, Weng JK, Chen XY, Martin C. Two CYP82D enzymes function as flavone hydroxylases in the biosynthesis of root-specific 4′-deoxyflavones in Scutellaria baicalensis. Mol Plant. 2018;11:135–48.
Huang GQ, Liang J, Lin J, Chen XSI, Xin CX, Yang CC. Predictive analysis of quality markers: a case study of Scutellariae Radix formula. Chinese J New Drugs. 2020;29:285–92.
Zhang GM, Xu XY, Wang XH. A method for regulating the ratio of baicalin and baicalein in baicalin extract. Shanghai Inst Tradit Chin Med. 2005.
Song SH, Wang Z. Analysis of essential oils from different organs of Scutellaria baicalensis. J Chin Med Mater. 2010;33:1265–70.
Qi Y, Zhang Q, Zhu H. Huang-Lian Jie-Du decoction: a review on phytochemical, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic investigations. Chin Med. 2019;14:1–22.
Yao G, Wang Y, Liu Y, Tao Y, Dai WF, Wang H. Total flavonoids from Scutellaria baicalensis and total iridoid glycosides from Gardenia jasminoides inhibit influenza H1N1 in vitro. Chin Tradit Pat Med. 2014;36:698–702.
Olennikov DN, Chirikova NKTL. Lamiaceae carbohydrates. IV. Water-soluble polysaccharides from Scutellaria baicalensis. Chem Nat Compd. 2011;44:556–9.
Olennikov DN, Rokhin AV, Tankhaeva LM. Lamiaceae carbohydrates. V. Structure of glucoarabinogalactan from Scutellaria baicalensis. Chem Nat Compd. 2011;44:560–3.
Olennikov DN, Stolbikova AV, Rokhin AV, Khobrakova VB. Carbohydrates from Lamiaceae. VIII. α-glucan from Scutellaria baicalensis roots. Chem Nat Compd. 2011;47:190–3.
Cui L, Wang W, Luo Y, Ning Q, Xia Z, Chen J. Polysaccharide from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi ameliorates colitis via suppressing NF-κB signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Int J Biol Macromol. 2019;132:393–405.
Yan BF, Zhu SQ, Su SL, Zhu ZH, Guo S, Zeng HT, Qian DW, Duan JF. Simultaneous determination of amino acids in Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf from different habitats by UPLC-TQ-MS. Chin J Pharm Anal. 2018;38:1165–73.
Vergun O, Svydenko L, Grygorieva O, Shymanska O, Rakhmetov D, Brindza J. Antioxidant capacity of plant raw material of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Potravin Slovak J Food Sci. 2019;13:614–21.
Tuan PA, Kim YB, Kim JK, Arasu MV, Al-Dhabi NA, Park SU. Molecular characterization of carotenoid biosynthetic genes and carotenoid accumulation in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. EXCLI J. 2015;14:146–57.
Long H, Zhang H, Deng A, Ma L, Wu L, Li Z. Three new lignan glucosides from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis. Acta Pharm Sin B. 2016;6:229–33.
Pshenichkina YA, Pshenichkin AY. Biogeochemical features of platinum accumulation in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Lamiaceae). Contemp Probl Ecol. 2018;11:221–6.
Tuo L, Yan XR, Li FN, Bao YX, Shi HC, Li HY. Brachybacterium endophyticum sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinobacterium isolated from bark of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018;68:3563–8.
Pu WL, Bai RY, Zhou K, Peng YF, Zhang MY, Hottiger M, Li WH, Gao XM, Sun LK. Baicalein attenuates pancreatic inflammatory injury through regulating MAPK, STAT 3 and NF-κB activation. Int Immunopharmacol. 2019;72:204–10.
Hong GE, Kim JA, Nagappan A, Yumnam S, Lee HJ, Kim EH. Flavonoids identified from Korean scutellaria baicalensis georgi inhibit inflammatory signaling by suppressing activation of NF-κB and MAPK in raw 264.7 cells. Evid-Based Compl Alt. 2013;2013.
Kim DH, Hossain MA, Kang YJ, Jang JY, Lee YJ, Im E. Baicalein, an active component of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, induces apoptosis in human colon cancer cells and prevents AOM/DSS-induced colon cancer in mice. Int J Oncol. 2013;43:1652–8.
Kim JA, Nagappan A, Park HS, Venkatarame Gowda Saralamma V, Hong GE, Yumnam S. Proteome profiling of lipopolysaccharide induced L6 rat skeletal muscle cells response to flavonoids from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. BMC Complem Altern M. 2014;14:1–10.
Feng T, Zhou L, Gai S, Zhai Y, Gou N, Wang X. Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd and Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi extracts suppress LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses through NF-κB, MAPK, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways in alveolar epithelial type II cells. Phyther Res. 2019;33:3251–60.
Yang X, Huang B, Chen J, Huang S, Zheng H, Lun ZR. In vitro effects of aqueous extracts of Astragalus membranaceus and Scutellaria baicalensis GEORGI on Toxoplasma gondii. Parasitol Res. 2012;110:2221–7.
Miyasaki Y, Rabenstein JD, Rhea J, Crouch ML, Mocek UM, Kittell PE. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial compounds in plant extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:2–9.
Zhu XJ, Mao Y, Guo MM, Yu HY, Hao LL, Hua Q, Lu Z, Hong MH, An FL. Enhancement of anti-acne effect of Scutellaria baicalensis extract by fermentation with symbiotic fungus Penicillium decumbens. J Biosci Bioeng. 2020.
Luo J, Dong B, Wang K, Cai S, Liu T, Cheng X. Baicalin inhibits biofilm formation, attenuates the quorum sensing-controlled virulence and enhances Pseudomonas aeruginosa clearance in a mouse peritoneal implant infection model. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176883.
Fu SL, Zhuang F, Guo L, Qiu YS, Xiong JL, Ye C, Liu Y, Wu ZY, Hou YQ. Effect of baicalin-aluminum complexes on fecal microbiome in piglets. Int J Mol Sci [Internet]. 2019;22:2390.
Shi H, Ren K, Lv B, Zhang W, Zhao Y, Tan RX. Baicalin from Scutellaria baicalensis blocks respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and reduces inflammatory cell infiltration and lung injury in mice. Sci Rep. 2016;6:1–12.
Zhi HJ, Zhu HY, Zhang YY, Lu Y, Li H, Chen DF. In vivo effect of quantified flavonoids-enriched extract of Scutellaria baicalensis root on acute lung injury induced by influenza A virus. Phytomedicine. 2019;57:105–16.
Zandi K, Lim TH, Rahim NA, Shu MH, Teoh BT, Sam SS. Extract of Scutellaria baicalensis inhibits dengue virus replication. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013;13:91.
Kwon BE, Song JH, Song HH, Kang JW, Hwang SN, Rhee KJ. Antiviral activity of oroxylin A against coxsackievirus B3 alleviates virus-induced acute pancreatic damage in mice. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:1–13.
Oo A, Rausalu K, Merits A, Higgs S, Vanlandingham D, Bakar SA. Deciphering the potential of baicalin as an antiviral agent for Chikungunya virus infection. Antiviral Res. 2018;150:101–11.
Wang MH, Li LZ, Sun JB, Wu FH, Liang JY. A new antioxidant flavone glycoside from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Nat Prod Res. 2014;28:1772–6.
Yoon JJ, Jeong JW, Choi EO, Kim MJ, Hwang-Bo H, Kim HJ. Protective effects of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in HaCaT human skin keratinocytes. EXCLI J. 2017;16:426–38.
Liu G, Bao Z, Wu J. Injectable baicalin/F127 hydrogel with antioxidant activity for enhanced wound healing. Chinese Chem Lett. 2020;31:1817–21.
Shang YZ, Zhang H, Cheng JJ, Miao H, Liu YP, Cao K. Flavonoids from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi are effective to treat cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Neural Regen Res. 2013;8:514–22.
Chen HM, Hsu JH, Liou SF, Chen TJ, Chen LY, Chiu CC. Baicalein, an active component of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, prevents lysophosphatidylcholine-induced cardiac injury by reducing reactive oxygen species production, calcium overload and apoptosis via MAPK pathways. BMC Complem Altern Med. 2014;14:1–10.
Wu D, Ding L, Tang X, Wang W, Chen Y, Zhang T. Baicalin protects against hypertension-associated intestinal barrier impairment in part through enhanced microbial production of short-chain fatty acids. Front Pharmacol. 2019;10:1–13.
Wu J, Nakashima S, Shigyo M, Yamasaki M, Ikuno S, Morikawa A. Antihypertensive constituents in Sanoshashinto. J Nat Med. 2020;74:421–33.
Ding LQ, Jia CL, Zhang Y, Wang WJ, Zhu WL, Chen Y, Zhang T. Baicalin relaxes vascular smooth muscle and lowers blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biomed Pharmacother. 2019;111:325–30.
Xu LN, Li Y, Dai Y. Natural products for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: pharmacology and mechanisms. Pharmacol Res. 2018;130:451.
Yang ZC, Huang W, Zhang JS, Xie M, Wang XW. Baicalein improves glucose metabolism in insulin resistant HepG2 cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2019;854:187–93.
Wang L, Tan N, Wang H, Hu J, Diwu W, Wang X. A systematic analysis of natural α-glucosidase inhibitors from flavonoids of Radix scutellariae using ultrafiltration UPLC-TripleTOF-MS/MS and network pharmacology. BMC Complem Med Ther. 2020;20:1–17.
Xiao S, Liu C, Chen M, Zou J, Zhang Z, Cui X. Scutellariae radix and coptidis rhizoma ameliorate glycolipid metabolism of type 2 diabetic rats by modulating gut microbiota and its metabolites. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2020;104:303–17.
Wang L, Li C, Sreeharsha N, Mishra A, Shrotriya V, Sharma A. Neuroprotective effect of Wogonin on Rat’s brain exposed to gamma irradiation. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol. 2020;204:111775.
Tu TH, Liou DY, Lin DY, Yang HC, Chen CJ, Huang MC, Huang WC, Tsai MJ. Characterizing the neuroprotective effects of S/B remedy (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and Bupleurum scorzonerifolfium Willd) in spinal cord injury. Molecules. 2019;24:1885.
Lim HS, Kim OS, Kim BY, Jeong SJ. Apigetrin from Scutellaria baicalensis georgi inhibits neuroinflammation in BV-2 microglia and exerts neuroprotective effect in HT22 hippocampal cells. J Med Food. 2016;19:1032–40.
Gaire BP, Kim YO, Jin ZH, Park J, Choi H, Bu Y. Neuroprotective effect of Scutellaria baicalensis flavones against global ischemic model in rats. J Nepal Pharm Assoc. 2015;27:1–8.
Gaire B, Song J, Lee S, Kim H. Neuroprotective effect of four flavonoids in the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Planta Med. 2012;78:PF71.
Yang J, Wu X, Yu H, Liao X, Teng L. NMDA receptor-mediated neuroprotective effect of the Scutellaria baicalensis georgi extract on the excitotoxic neuronal cell death in primary rat cortical cell cultures. Sci World J. 2014;2014.
Miao G, Zhao H, Guo K, Cheng J, Zhang S, Zhang X. Mechanisms underlying attenuation of apoptosis of cortical neurons in the hypoxic brain by flavonoids from the stems and leaves of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Neural Regen Res. 2014;9:1592–8.
Wu JY, Tsai KW, Li YZ, Chang YS, Lai YC, Laio YH. Anti-bladder-tumor effect of baicalein from Scutellaria baicalensis georgi and its application in vivo. Evid-based Complem Altern M. 2013;2013.
Park JR, Lee MC, Moon SC, Kim J, Ha KT, Park EJ. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi induces caspase-dependent apoptosis via mitogen activated protein kinase activation and the generation of reactive oxygen species signaling pathways in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Mol Med Rep. 2017;16:2302–8.
Saralamma VVG, Lee HJ, Hong GE, Park HS, Yumnam S, Raha S. Korean Scutellaria baicalensis georgi flavonoid extract induces mitochondrially mediated apoptosis in human gastric cancer AGS cells. Oncol Lett. 2017;14:607–14.
Huang TH, Wu TH, Guo YH, Li TL, Chan YL, Wu CJ. The concurrent treatment of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi enhances the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin but also attenuates. Chemotherapy-induced cachexia and acute kidney injury. J Ethnopharmacol. 2019;243:112075.
Orzechowska BU, Wróbel G, Turlej E, Jatczak BN, Sochocka M, Chaber R. Antitumor effect of baicalin from the Scutellaria baicalensis radix extract in B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia with different chromosomal rearrangements. Int Immunopharmacol. 2020;79:106114.
Huang H, Cai H, Zhang L, Hua Z, Shi J, Wei Y. Oroxylin A inhibits carcinogen-induced skin tumorigenesis through inhibition of inflammation by regulating SHCBP1 in mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2020;80:106123.
Huang J, Guo W, Cheung F, Tan HY, Wang N, Feng Y. Integrating network pharmacology and experimental models to investigate the efficacy of coptidis and Scutellaria containing Huanglian Jiedu decoction on hepatocellular carcinoma. Am J Chin Med. 2020;48:161–82.
Park HS, Park KI, Hong GE, Nagappan A, Lee HJ, Kim EH. Korean Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi methanol extracts inhibits metastasis via the Forkhead Box M1 activity in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;155:847–51.
Han Z, Zhu S, Han X, Wang SW, Wang RZ. Baicalein inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cells through suppressing the expression of CD24. Int Immunopharmacol. 2015;29:416–22.
Dong Q, Chu F, Wu C, Huo Q, Gan H, Li X. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi extract protects against alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice and affects the mechanism of ER stress. Mol Med Rep. 2016;13:3052–62.
Shi H, Zhang Y, Xing J, Liu L, Qiao F, Li J. Baicalin attenuates hepatic injury in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis cell model by suppressing inflammasome-dependent GSDMD-mediated cell pyroptosis. Int Immunopharmacol. 2020;81:106195.
Kim KT, Jeon GH, Cho SH, Lim SG, Kwon MG, Yoo JH. Effects of dietary inclusion of various concentrations of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi extract on growth, body composition, serum chemistry and challenge test of far eastern catfish (silurus asotus). Aquac Res. 2013;44:1502–10.
Huang S, Huang Q, Huang B, Lu F. The effect of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi on immune response in mouse model of experimental periodontitis. J Dent Sci. 2013;8:405–11.
Fu S, Zhao W, Xiong C, Guo L, Guo J, Qiu Y. Baicalin modulates apoptosis via RAGE, MAPK, and AP-1 in vascular endothelial cells during Haemophilus parasuis invasion. Innate Immun. 2019;25:420–32.
Zhao F, Chang Y, Gao L, Qin X, Du G, Zhang X. Protective effects of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi extract on d-galactose induced aging rats. Metab Brain Dis. 2018;33:1401–12.
Song J, Zhou YZ, Pang YY, Gao L, Du GH, Qin XM. The anti-aging effect of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi flowers extract by regulating the glutamine-glutamate metabolic pathway in d-galactose induced aging rats. Exp Gerontol. 2020;134:110843.
Lim H, Kwon YS, Kim DH, Lee JK, Kim HP. Flavonoids from Scutellaria baicalensis inhibit senescence-associated secretory phenotype production by interrupting IκBζ/C/EBPβ pathway: inhibition of age-related inflammation. Phytomedicine. 2020;76:153255.
Gu Y, Chen X, Wang Y, Liu Y, Zheng L, Li X. Development of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS)-modified bone marrow mononuclear cell membrane chromatography for screening anti-osteoporosis components from Scutellariae Radix. Acta Pharm Sin B. 2020.
Liu J, Wang S, Sun J, Shi J, Li Y, Gou J. Screening of osteoanagenesis-active compounds from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi by hPDLC/CMC-online-HPLC/MS. Fitoterapia. 2014;93:105–14.
Kim MH, Ryu SY, Bae M, Choi JS, Min YK. Baicalein inhibits osteoclast differentiation and induces mature osteoclast apoptosis. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:3375–82.
Kim JM, Lee SU, Kim YS, Min YKKS. Baicalein stimulates osteoblast differentiation via coordinating activation of MAP kinases and transcription factors. J Cell Biochem. 2008;104:1906–17.
Jin BR, Chung KS, Kim HJ, An HJ. Chinese Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) inhibits inflammation and proliferation on benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2019;235:481–8.
Fisar Z. Drugs related to monoamine oxidase activity. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2016;69:112–24.
Lee HW, Ryu HW, Kang MG, Park D, Lee H, Shin HM. Potent inhibition of monoamine oxidase A by decursin from Angelica gigas Nakai and by wogonin from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Int J Biol Macromol. 2017;97:598–605.
Zhang RY, Ma ZX, Liu KL, Li YW, Liu DN, Xu LX, Deng XY, Qu R, Ma ZQ, Ma SP. Baicalin exerts antidepressant effects through Akt/FOXG1 pathway promoting neuronal differentiation and survival. Life Sci. 2019;221:241–8.
Kudo M, Kobayashi-Nakamura K, Tsuji-Naito K. Bifunctional effects of O-methylated flavones from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi on melanocytes: inhibition of melanin production and intracellular melanosome transport. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:1–26.
Trinh HT, Joh EH, Kwak HY, Baek NI, Kim DH. Anti-pruritic effect of baicalin and its metabolites, baicalein and oroxylin A, in mice. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2010;31:718–24.
Hou Y, Lin S, Tsai S, Ko M, Chang Y, Chao PL. Flavonoid pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution after repeated dosing of the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis in rats. Planta Med. 2011;77:455–60.
Xing S, Wang M, Peng Y, Chen D, Li X. Simulated gastrointestinal tract metabolism and pharmacological activities of water extract of Scutellaria baicalensis roots. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;152:183–9.
Zhi HJ, Jin X, Zhu HY, Li H, Zhang YY, Lu Y. Exploring the effective materials of flavonoids-enriched extract from Scutellaria baicalensis roots based on the metabolic activation in influenza A virus induced acute lung injury. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2020;177:112876.
Ren G, Chen H, Zhang M, Yang N, Yang H, Xu C. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion study of Oroxylin A, Oroxylin A 7-O-glucuronide and Oroxylin A sodium sulfonate in rats after administration of Oroxylin A. Fitoterapia. 2020;142:104480.
Li M, Shi A, Pang H, Xue W, Li Y, Cao G. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of a single ascending dose of baicalein chewable tablets in healthy subjects. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;156:210–5.
Shii T, Kuroda M, Shamoto N, Mimaki Y. An analysis of the ingredients in decoctions and extracts of Kampo medicines: Amounts of baicalin and baicalein in Kampo medicines containing Scutellariae Radix. J Japanese Geriatr Soc. 2020;57:72–80.
Zhao L, Chen Z, Zhao Q, Wang D, Hu R, You Q. Developmental toxicity and genotoxicity studies of wogonin. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011;60:212–7.
Zhang W, Song DR, Wang YN. Evaluation of embryonic toxicity of baicalin based on embryonic stem cell experimental model. Chinese J Pharmacol Toxicol. 2012;16:864–9.
Deng YY, Hu ZM, Zhou Y, Chen SZ, Liu JP. Determination of specific antibody in serum of rabbits sensitized to baicalin in shuanghuanglian injection. Hebei J TCM. 2017;39:880–3.
Gao N, Gao Y, Tian FQ, Qiao HL. Sensitization of baicalin in guinea pigs and its possible mechanism. Chin J Pharmacol Toxicol. 2014;28:857–62.
Wang J, Zhang YJ, Che DL, Zeng YN, Wu YY, Qin QH, Wang N. Baicalin induces Mrgprb2-dependent pseudo-allergy in mice. Immunol Lett. 2020;226:55–61.
Cai Y, Ma W, Xiao Y, Wu B, Li X, Liu F. High doses of baicalin induces kidney injury and fibrosis through regulating TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;333:1–9.
Adam T, Bursztejn AC, Schmutz JL. Facial eczema from a sunscreen: Scutellaria baicalensis, a novel allergen beginning to attract attention. Contact Dermatitis. 2020;82:253–4.
Gallo R, Pastorino C, Gasparini G, Ciccarese GPA. Scutellaria baicalensis extract: a novel botanical allergen in cosmetic products? Contact Dermatitis. 2016;75:387–8.
Scheers C, Dehavay F, Andre J, Neczyporenko FKA. A case of recalcitrant face eczema. Contact Dermatitis. 2019;80:242–3.
Hussain S, Xie Y, Li D, Malik SL, Hou JC, Leung LH, Fan XX. Current strategies against COVID-19. Chin Med. 2020;15:70.
Tian XL, Li C, Huang AL, Xia S, Lu SC, Shi ZL, Lu L, Jiang SB, Yang ZL, Wu YL. Potent binding of 2019 novel coronavirus spike protein by a SARS coronavirus-specific human monoclon alantibody. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020;9:382–5.
Chen Y, Liu QY, Guo DY. Emerging coronaviruses: genome structure, replication, and pathogenesis. J Med Virol. 2020;92(4):418–23.
Zhao Y, Zhao Z, Wang Y, Zhou Y, Ma Y, Zuo W. Single-cell RNA expression profiling of ACE2, the putative receptor of Wuhan 2019-nCov. bioRxiv. 2020.
Huang CL, Wang YM, Li XW, Ren LL, Zhao JP, Hu Y. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;S0140–6736(20):30183–5.
Chen F, Chan KH, Jiang Y, Kao RYT, Lu HT, Fan KW. In vitro susceptibility of 10 clinical isolates of SARS coronavirus to selected antiviral compounds. J Clin Virol. 2004;31:69–75.
Chen H, Du Q. Potential natural compounds for preventing 2019-nCoV infection. Chin Med. 2020.
Ruan X, Du P, Zhao K, Huang JC, Xia HM, Dai D, Huang S, Cu X, Liu LM, Zhang JJ. Mechanism of Dayuanyin in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 based on network pharmacology and molecular docking. Chin Med. 2020;15:62.
Su HX, Yao S, Zhao WF, Li MJ, Liu J, Shang WJ, Xie H, Ke CQ. Discovery of baicalin and baicalein as novel, natural product inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease in vitro. bioRxiv. 2020.04.13.038687.
Wenting WJ, Noormaimaiti MT, Wumaier AW, Yusufu MD, Noor MD, Mahemuti NZ. Study on the active components in the adjuvant treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) with Jinhua Qinggan granules based on network pharmacology and molecular docking. J Chinese Med Mater. 2020.
Wang Y, Wu J, Xiang JY, Li HM, Zhou S, Wang GQ, Shi YH, Bin W. Exploring the active compounds of Huanglian Jiedu decoction in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) based on network pharmacology and molecular docking method. Pharmacol Clin Chinese Mater Med. 2020.
Tong T, Wu Y, Ni W, Shen AZ, Liu S. The potential insights of Traditional Chinese Medicine on treatment of COVID-19. Chin Med. 2020;15:51.
Jaffe S. Regulators split on antimalarials for COVID-19. Lancet. 2020;395:1179.
The CIICI, press SCIOha, traditional cotiro, treatment Cmitpa, drugs. OC-AE. 2020.
of XITd, the tCmaei, treatment of novel coronary pneumonia t, propose tmatd, Chinese a-ppot, Medicine. 2020.
Lane R. Sarah Gilbert: carving a path towards a COVID-19 vaccine. Lancet. 2020;395:1247.
Liu X, Zhang Y, Wu M, Ma MH, Huang ZH, Tian F, Dong SH. The scientific elucidation of daodi medicinal materials. Chin Med. 2020;15:86.